SAXON UNIT ORGANIZATION
The sources for this section include the Danish General Staff's Bidrag til den Store Nordiska Krigs Historie (1899-1932); The Austrian General Staff's Feldzüge Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (1876-1892); O.Schuster and F.U. Francke's Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee (1885); and the Swedish General Staff's Karl XII på slagfältet (1918-1919).
In 1700 the infantry regiment contained 15 companies and a grenadier company of 150 men. In the field the regiment was divided in two or three battalions. In 1703, “...every infantry regiment numbered 1171 men and consisted of the staff, a grenadier company of 94 men and 12 musketeer companies of 88 men each. In addition each infantry regiment had 1 senior cannoneer, 6 cannoneers and 6 pioneers, as well as 9 servers and 15 horses to service the regimental artillery.”
According to Schuster and Francke, “...in the year 1705 an infantry regiment consisted of 16 companies in 2 battalions of 8 companies each. Each regiment consisted of 2 Colonels (including the Inhaber), 1 Lieutenant Colonel, 2 Majors, 1 Quartermaster, 1 Adjutant, 1 Auditor, 1 Chaplain, 1 Regimental Barber with 8 assistants (medical personnel), 4 Lance Corporals, 8 Oboists, 1 Carpenter, 11 Captains, 1 Captain Lieutenant, 15 Lieutenants, 5 Second Lieutenants, 16 Ensigns [1 color per company], 16 Senior Sergeants, 16 Sergeants, 16 Fouriers, 64 Corporals, 32 Drummers, 128 Grenadiers, 1,024 Other Ranks, 16 Servants for a total of all ranks of 1,391.” This organization probably existed earlier. By 1705 grenadiers were no longer grouped in a separate company, but assigned 16 to each line company.
The Swedish General Staff work, Karl XII på slagfältet, contains a number of orders of battle for the period 1700-1706 which show Saxon infantry regiments of 1 or 2 battalions with a strength of 625-650 per battalion
. The above represents authorized or paper strength. Infantry regiments in the field were often only one battalion strong with a field strength of 400-600 men, except for the Saxon Guard which generally fielded two battalions.
Garde du Corps
In 1701 a Corps of Grenadiers zu Pferde and a Corps of Karabiniers were formed, and combined into a Garde du Corps of 333 men in two squadrons each of two 75 men companies. In 1702 the Garde du Corps was broken-up and the personnel used as the basis for four new cuirassier regiments.
In 1703 the Garde du Corps was reconstituted with four Corps:
3. Grenadiere zu Pferde
Each Corps consisted of a Colonel, a Lieutenant Colonel, a Major, 3 Captains and 180 men in three companies.
Schuster and Franke generally give the Garde du Corps a strength of 400 men in 4 Corps throughout the period after 1703; however, in 1710 they state that it had a strength of 867 men. This figure might include the Chevaliergarde which is quite often included with the Garde du Corps.
Similar to the Swedish Drabants. An elite unit of squadron strength, 80-180 men, in which all personnel held officer’s rank.
Cuirassier and Dragoon
In 1700 Saxon cuirassier and dragoon regiments had, “ 6 squadrons each of 2 companies of 58 men each.”
In 1703, “ the cuirassier [and dragoon] regiments numbered in each squadron 3 companies of 74 men each and together with the regimental staff number 898 men.” [Each regiment was organized into 4 squadrons.] The orders of battle in the Swedish General Staff’s, Karl XII på slagfältet, for a slightly earlier period, 1701-1702, show Saxon cuirassier and dragoon regiments in 6 squadrons of 150 men each.
By 1707, and probably somewhat earlier, the number of companies in a regiment was reduced to 8 and organized in 4 squadrons of two companies with each company numbering 75 men plus 12 prima plan.
At the end of 1699 the Artillery Establishment consisted of one Ammunition Company, three Cannon Companies and one Miner Company and Pontoon sections.
In the Fall of 1701 the Artillery Establishment consisted of 1 Colonel, 1 Lieutenant Colonel, 2 Majors and 6 Companies each of 3 officers and 75 men. In addition, the Establishment included Engineers, 1 Pontoon Company and 480 wagons.
It appears as if each company had six to eight artillery pieces.
NOTES ON THE SAXON ARMY 1700-1716