Unfortunately, there is not much in the way of contemporary illustrations of Norwegian soldiers from this period. Only one sketch from circa 1698 has been located. It is not in color, and it lacks detail, only providing us with the general appearance of the uniform. There are a number of 19th and 20th Century illustrations by V. Møller, A. Bloch and A. Hauge, but these are at best the artist's interpretation of available written material.
The situation is not much better with regards to written material. The information available in most secondary sources is fragmentary, often only coat and facing colors. Specific details are lacking. Eric Aagaard has made available his notes accumulated from years of research in the field, and Torstein Snorrason located some material in the Danish Rigsarkivet. These contributions have made it possible to flesh out some of the details. For those remaining I have had to rely on "educated guesses" to try to fill in the gaps.
More research needs to be done in the this field, and I would appreciate hearing from anyone who has additional information.
Headgear: In 1700 the majority of Norwegian infantrymen probably wore a kabuds or kaskjett. Similar in appearance to the Swedish karpus and the Russian kartuz, the kabuds was a cap with flaps that could be turned down to protect the neck and ears, as well as the eyes. No examples have survived; however, Erik Aagaard has discovered a sketch by Jacob Coning (above), which was executed in 1698 or 1699 at the request of Christian 5. The sketch illustrates Norwegian soldiers working on Overberget, which was part of the fortifications of Fredriksten. Although the sketch lacks the uniform details one would desire, it does provide us with contemporary evidence of a possible shape and appearance of a kabuds. There are a number of other illustrations, most notably by V. Møller (see above) and A. Bloch. These date from the 19th and 20th Centuries, and until the discovery of the Coning sketch, a source for these was unknown. The kabuds was made from a variety of material - cloth, leather and vadmel (a coarse, woolen homespun), and its appearance probably varied between regiments and regions of the country (see Henriksen plate above). A. Bloch's illustration of the Akershusiske National Regiment ca. 1702 shows a kabuds that is gray with green lining. The front flap is trimmed with red, green and white braid and bears the monogram C5 and crown. The latter was either in brass or a yellow/gold cloth. Whether or not the kabuds in the other regiments were similarly decorated is unknown. The kabuds also could be in a solid color as in the one from a model in Kristiansten's fortress and those from Møller. Regulations called for 2 hats for a national infantryman for a 10-year period; however, because of the climate it was decided in 1706 that kabuds could continue to be worn. Noncommissioned officers, drummers and musicians probably also wore the kabuds, which continued in use throughout the period.
A broad-brimmed hat, perhaps turned up on one side, was also worn in a few regiments, most probably Hausmann's and Gyldenløve's geworbne regiments, the Artillery, and perhaps the Trondhjemske National Regiment. This hat eventually became the tricorn. The first unit to wear the tricorn was in all probability Cicignon's Geworbne Regiment sometime before 1709. As in the Danish Army, the tricorn was probably edged in tape in the regimental facing color. It might also have had had a rosette also in the facing color held by a brass button; although, there is no evidence to support this. Eventually, the tricorn was edged in yellow tape and had a black silk cockade. The tricorn was introduced to the conscripted (national) regiments over time. It too had a black cockade, but was edged with white tape.
Grenadier caps are a bit of a mystery. Only one illustration of a grenadier cap is available, and that is A. Bloch's illustration of a cap from the Akershusiske National Regiment ca. 1702. It is a kabuds with a roll of bearskin placed horizontally across the front of the cap. In contrast to the kabuds of the musketeer, which has the crowned monogram C5, the front flap of the grenadier bears the Norwegian lion in brass or yellow/gold cloth. Grenadier caps were the responsibility of the regimental commander, and the costs for such were borne entirely by the regiment. It is unknown if the grenadiers in the other national regiments wore similar caps, or even if they wore any type of special headgear. Hausmann's and Gyldenløve's geworbne regiments and later Cicignon's Geworbne Regiment probably had grenadier caps similar to those of the Danish Army.
Norwegian grenadier, Hausmanns Geworde Regt.
from a painting by Jacob Coning
"Maleri fra Fredrikshald, 1699"
Hair: Like their Danish cousins the Norwegians wore their hair gathered in a hair bag. For daily wear, the hair either hung loose or was tied together on the neck and stuck up under the hat or kabuds. Officers wore wigs. Hair was not powdered. Grenadiers might have sported a mustache.
Neckcloth: This was of muslin or fine linen for officers. It was wrapped around the neck several times and tied in an elaborate knot. The other ranks used much less expensive material. Besides acting as a neckerchief, it was also used as a towel. Therefore, it was not always clean, particularly among the men. Generally, neckcloths were white in color.
Coat: In 1700 the Norwegian infantryman wore a single-breasted, collarless coat usually with horizontal pockets. The coat was either gray or red in color. The gray is often described by contemporaries as almost white. Cuffs were in the regimental facing color, as was the coat lining (see chart). Buttons were either pewter or brass. In 1706 the national Norwegian infantryman was authorized one coat for a 10-year period. The coat replacement period for the enlisted units was 1½ years. (The National infantryman was a part-time soldier. When he was not on duty or a drill, the coat would have been in storage, hence the long replacement period.) This coat was to have 36 buttons, latter reduced to 34. The number of buttons indicates that this regulation probably saw the introduction of the double-breasted coat (3 buttons on each pocket, 2 on each cuff, 2 in the back, which were located behind the pockets and served to tighten the loose coat, and 22 on the coat front in two rows of 11); however, since the end of uniform replacement period had not been reached, units probably did not receive new coats until 1710. On 29th October 1708 the surtout (a type of overcoat, which in fact became the uniform coat) was introduced. Again, however, these did not begin to be worn until 1710. The buttonhole stitching could have been in the regimental facing color on the double-breasted coat. The King tried several times to prohibit colored buttonhole stitching, but without success. The reserve companies were to wear the same uniform as the utskrevne companies; but, in 1700 they were not yet organized. Even when the war began in 1709 the reserve companies were still without proper uniforms, and could only be used for garrison duty. By 1718 only three regiments still wore gray coats, but these were replaced by red coats before the end of the year.
Cassock: The cassock was introduced in 1683 in the Danish Army. It appears to have been a wide, coat open on the sides and furnished with 12 buttons along the front, at the same time there must have been an closure system along the sides. The sleeves were also open on the sides and could be closed with buttons or hooks. Cassocks appear to have had collars in the regimental color. It is only mentioned as a uniform item for the Geworbne Regiment. It appears as if the national (conscripted) regiments did not use this item.
Waistcoat/Kamisol: This item is not shown on illustrations of national infantrymen in 1700, or is it mentioned as part of the uniform items to be replaced in a 10-year cycle. Most probably the national infantryman wore some type of homespun farmer's jacket under his coat. Later, as new coats were issued, the old coats would be converted to a waistcoat/kamisol. They would be reversed with the old coat's lining, which was in the regimental facing color, visible. The men of the Geworbne Regiment had a vest/kamisol, which would have been in the facing color.
Breeches: Breeches were probably of leather initially, but later became cloth and were in the regimental facing color (see chart). A few regiments, particularly the three who served with the Danish Army in Denmark and Northern Germany 1713-1716, adopted red breeches.
Stockings: These were in the regimental facing color (see chart); although, at least three regiments, which served in the Danish Army in Denmark and Northern Germany 1713-1716, adopted red stockings. Stockings were held in place by a brown or black leather strap just below the knee.
Shoes: Illustrations show shoes for the national regiments as being brown leather in 1700. Eventually these became black. The buckle could be pewter or brass with the latter being most common.
Belts: Belts were initially natural (brown) leather in color. After 1710 belts became a buff color. Metal fittings were brass or pewter.
Cartridge and Grenade Boxes: These too were probably a natural leather color (brown) in 1700, but over time these became black leather. Grenade boxes might have carried a an enbroidered or colored leather decoration, possible a monogram and crown (C5, later becoming F4) or a Norwegian Lion.
Scabbards: Sword and bayonet scabbards were suspended from the waitbelt, and were either dark brown or black leather with pewter or brass fittings.
Drummers, pipers and oboists: These wore the same uniform as the other ranks, but the cuffs, pockets, buttonholes, coat seams, sleeves, etc. could have been edged in tape of the button or regimental facing color. The cost for the uniform details was borne entirely by the regiment. Thus, the quantity and type of ornamentation probably varied from regiment to regiment depending on the size of the officers' purses. Drums were made of wood and painted. The painting scheme is unknown. They were plain or bore the Royal monogram, C5, a double F4 and crown, the Norwegian Lion or some other device determined by the colonel.
Noncommissioned officers: coats were usually of a finer quality that that of the men. Rank distinctions were probably one or more stripes of metal braid (likely silver) on the cuffs. Hats probably were also edged in metal braid of the button color. Noncommissioned officers, like officers, carried a cane as a status symbol and used as a work implement. Armament consisted of an infantry sword and halberd, no musket. Halberds were used to keep the ranks in place and to kill anyone fleeing during combat.
Officers: coats were the same colors as those of the other ranks, but of a finer quality of material. Cuffs, pockets, buttonholes, coat front, coat skirts and coat seams were in all likelihood also edged in gold. Officers' waistcoat/kamisols could have gold edging on the pockets, skirt and buttonholes with the amount and width depending on rank. A sash could also be worn. Most likely it was in a solid color. The color of the sash was not governed by regulation, and probably varied from regiment to regiment. Officers also wore a silver gorget. Officers wore hats or tricorn. Like Danish officers it was probably edged in gold the width of which indicated rank. In addition, the hat also had a feather edging, probably in the regimental facing color. The Wedel Archives contain a price list, which was attached to a document dated 30 April 1704 and approved by the King on 26 July 1703. This document was an attempt to achieve uniformity in the dress of noncommissioned officers, musicians and drummers for the Vesterlenske National Regiment. The price list indicates that officers' hats should be black with narrow gold lace and feathers according to the regimental color, yellow. A rosette or cockade on the hat is not mentioned. In addition it mentions that officers' stockings should be white, while the soldiers' should be in the regimental color.
Skiløper and Fyrrør: The uniforms of these units was essentially the same as that of the ordinary infantryman; however, because of their unique role, they more than likely adopted other items of clothing and equipment that allowed them to operate under adverse weather conditions. Two such items probably were mittens and linen gaiters. The color of the uniform of these troops was selected to allow them to operate undetected in enemy territory. When the red faced blue uniform was adopted, it was intended that it be worn inside out, i.e. blue faced red. Again, to facilitate operations in enemy areas.
Landragoner companies: The men in these companies probably wore a uniform of vadmel (a coarse, woolen homespun material) if they wore a uniform at all. Vadmel came in a variety of natural shades or was dyed gray. There is some indication that the companies located Søndenfjelds might have had green coat lining and cuffs, while those Nordenfjelds might have had red. Breeches and stockings were probably also made of vadmel.
Infantry Uniform Table
Tessin Vaupel Unit Coat Facings Notes 1687 752 Hausmanns Geworbne
(1704) Cicignons Geworbne
1 1689 752 Gyldenløves Geworbne Red Green 1640/1 763 Trondhjemske National Red Yellow 2 1640/1 763 (1710) 1. Trondhjemske National Red Yellow 3 1710/3 763 (1710) 2. Trondhjemske National Red Yellow 4 1718- Red 1718- Light Blue 1717/6 763 (1719) 3. Trondhjemske National Red Light Green 1640/2 754 Akershusiske National Light Gray Green 5,12 1718- Red 1718- Sea Green 1657/1 760 Vesterlenske National Light Gray Yellow 6,12 1718- Red 1718- Feuille-Morte 1657/2 761 Bergenhusiske National Light Gray
7,12 1713(?)- Red 1713(?)- White 1658/1 758 Oplandske National Light Gray Red 8,12 1715- Red 1715- Steel Gray 1658/2 756 Smålenske National Light Gray Blue 9,12 1718- Red 1718- Blue 1710/4 767 Rørosske Frivillige Bergjegerkorps ? ? 767 Skiløper Blue White 1717- Red 1717- Blue Fyrrør ? ? 10 1710/1 1710/2 768 Landdragoner Gray Green(?) 11
1. 1700. The coat may have had red buttonhole lace on coat front and pockets.
1702. The combined Geworbne Regiment received uniform items originally ordered for Gyldenløve's Regiment consisting of a cassock, a coat and a pair of breeches. The color was red with green lining, cloth as well as baize somewhat lighter than approved. Brass buttons.
1709. The regiment ordered a test surtout that was the same as used in Denmark. The King ordered the regiment outfitted in sourtouts, and that a new issue should occur every 1 1/2 years. When the new ones were received, the old ones were to be converted to camisol.
1712/1713. "The present uniform is from 24 April 1710. According to Royal Resolution and a 31 August 1709 General Commassariat message, the regiment was no longer to be clothed with cassocks, but in surtouts like the geworbne regiments in Denmark. New uniforms were due 21 November 1711 - they were completed in Hamburg and have recently arrived."
1713. Red coat. Green lining and cuffs. Brass buttons and fittings. This regiment along with the 2. Trondhjemske National and Bergenhusiske National was shipped to Denmark where it joined the main Danish Army before Tønning.
1717. Red coat. Green lining and cuffs. Breeches and stockings the same color as the coat (red).
2. 1701. New uniform should be blue with red lining (never issued).
1703. Reserves: Kabuds with red lining, coat of gray vadmel, cuffs of red baize, red buttons.
1708. Red coat with yellow cuffs and yellow lining, brass buttons.
3. 1713. "Has red uniforms with yellow small clothes (cuffs, lining, breeches and stockings) and shall keep these."
1715. "Shall (from 1716) have red coats with blue lining and cuffs." (Regiment never received these.)
1716. Red coat with yellow lining and cuffs, red breeches and stockings. (Blue is crossed out and changed to yellow).
1717. Red coat, yellow cuffs, yellow lining, yellow breeches and stockings. Kabuds for the men. Hat for noncommissioned officers, drummers and musicians.
4.1713. "Has red coat faced yellow with yellow small cloths and shall keep these. This regiment along with the Geworbne Regiment and the Bergenhusiske Nationale Regiment was shipped to Denmark where it joined the main Danish Army before Tønning.
1715. Red coat, yellow lining and yellow cuffs, brass buttons and fittings.
1716. Same as 1715, but was issued hats.
1717. Red coat, light blue lining and cuffs, brass buttons and fittings. Breeches and stockings in the coat color (red).
5.1697. Gray coat, green lining, green cuffs, breeches and stockings and kabuds, white (pewter) buttons.
1702. White (light gray) coat, green lining, white (light gray) kabuds with a crowned C5 on the front flap which is green and trimmed with braid of green, white and red wool, green breeches and stockings.
1713. White (light gray) coat with green lining, cuffs, breeches and stockings.
1717. Red coat, celadon (sea green) cuffs and lining, breeches and stockings. White buttons.(Possibly red breeches, stockings and buttonholes.) Received late in 1718.
6.1697. Light gray coat, yellow lining, white buttons, yellow breeches and stockings.
1700. White-gray coat, kabuds with yellow lining, yellow breeches, cartridge box with fittings and belt.
1702. When the regiment receive new uniforms, the coat should have brass buttons instead of cloth buttons.
1710. Received new uniforms at New Years.
1712-13. Received new uniforms, yellow breeches.
1713. White (light gray) uniform with yellow cuffs, lining, breeches and stockings.
1717. Red coat with feuille-morte cuffs, lining, breeches and stockings. Received late in 1718.
7. 1687. Red coat, blue cuffs and blue baize for coat lining and kabuds. Also received white (light gray) coats with red lining.
1709. White (light gray) coat, red lining and cuffs, brass buttons, but also some companies were still wearing a red coat faced blue.
1710. Regimental commander complained that the regiment's uniforms had been in use since 1687.
1711. Red coat, vest, breeches and stockings, white cuffs and lining. Although these items were ordered, they were probably not received. As late as 1713 the regiment was still reported wearing gray coats faced red, even though they were to have red uniforms with white facings and the old white (light gray) coat was to be used as a camisol. Allowed to continue wearing kabuds instead of hats.
1713. This regiment along with the Geworbne Regiment and the 2. Trondhjemske Nationale Regiment was shipped to Denmark in 1713. The other two regiments joined the main Danish Army before Tønning, while the Bergenhusiske Regiment was stationed in Copenhagen where it was reported that the regiment's uniforms were in poor condition and new ones were ordered. Possibly adopted the double-breasted coat at this time - red with white facings. The old gray (white-gray) coats were to be made into vests.
1715. Red coat with white cuffs and lining.
1717. Red coat, white cuffs and lining. Breeches and stockings in the same color as the coat (red).
8.1697. Light gray coat, red lining, white buttons, red breeches and stockings. "Cloth kabuds to pull down over the ears."
1702. White (light gray) coat, red lining, breeches and stockings.
1713. Red coat, red lining (purchased earlier), a second color (blue-gray) on cuffs and buttonholes.
1717. Red coat, blue-gray (steel gray) cuffs, lining, breeches and stockings.
9.1696. Light gray coat, blue breeches and stockings, white (pewter) buttons.
1713. White (light gray) coat with blue cuffs, lining, breeches and stockings.
1717. Red coat, dark blue cuffs and lining, breeches and stockings. Received at the end of 1718.
10. Fyrrør probably wore the same uniform as the skiløper.
11. Gray vadmel coats, possibly with green facings. The landdragoner in Trondelag might have had red facings.
12. When these regiments were divided, creating two regiments, both regiments continued to wear the uniform of the parent regiment.
Plate 1 - Norwegian Infantry Uniforms 1700-1709
Plate 2 - Norwegian Infantry Uniforms I 1710-1720
Plate 3 - Norwegian Infantry Uniforms II 1710-1720
Plate 4 - Norwegian Skilper and Landragoner
National (utskrevet) infantryman ca. 1709
after a drawing by Erik Aagaard
Geworone regement ca. 1713
after a drawing by Sren Henriksen
The uniform of the dragoons was essentially the same as that of the infantry with a few exceptions which are addressed below. We are fortunate in that Torstein Snorrason located a Royal document dated 8 January 1707 in the Danish Archives. This document was sent to Følkershamb and describes the recommended composition and appearance of the uniforms for officers, NCOs, drummers and musicians.
Headgear: The broad-brimmed hat, later becoming the tricorn, was the basic headgear for dragoons. There is no indication that the kabuds was worn, but there is a possibility that it might have been worn by the "reserve dragoons" and regimental train personnel. The hat was probably trimmed with tape in the button color. Initially, the hat did not have a rosette or cockade, but by about 1716 a black silk cockade probably appeared on the hat.
Grenadiers were only on the establishment of the Nordenfjeldske Dragonkorps (12 in each company), but there is no evidence that they wore any unique type of headgear.
Coat: In 1701/02, like the infantry, the dragoons wore a collarless, single-breasted coat either gray or blue in color. Cuffs and coat lining were in the regimental facing color (see chart below). The 1706 Regulation, which governed the infantry and which probably saw the introduction of the double-breasted coat, also applied to the dragoons. This is confirmed by the Royal document of 1707. In the latter, the number of buttons for the coat is given at 36(34). On the other hand, J. Schøitz (Elleveårskrigens militære historie) indicates that at the beginning of the war in 1709 the uniforms of the dragoon regiments were in good condition. Since the replacement period for the dragoon uniform was the same as that of the infantry (10 years), it is possible that the dragoon regiments received a new issue before 1706/07, possibly in connection with the reorganization of 1701/02. Thus, the introduction of the double-breasted coat in the dragoons probably did not occur until the dragoons adopted the red coat sometime between 1714 and 1717.
Cloak: The 1707 Royal document mentions cloaks for officers, NCOs and musicians and drummers. It is unknown if cloaks were also authorized for the ordinary dragoons, but it is probably safe to assume that they were. In any case cloaks were in the same color as the uniform coat and lined with the regimental facing color. Cloaks also had a collar which would have been in the same color as the lining, and a large brass clasp.
Vest: probably of buckskin or some other leather material. This would have provided some additional protection against sword cuts. Later these were of cloth and in the regimental facing color.
Breeches: either cloth or buckskin leather. If of cloth, they would have been in the regimental facing color.
Boots: soft, black leather, as opposed to the stiff boots worn by the cavalry. Boots of soft leather would have allowed greater mobility while on foot.
Stockings: the color of these are unknown; but if they followed the infantry style, they would have been in the regimental facing color.
Gloves or gauntlets: elk or buckskin.
Shoes: black leather with brass buckles.
Belts: natural brown, later buff leather.
Cartridge and Grenade Boxes: black leather.
Saddlecloth and Pistol Holster Cover: There is virtually no mention of the color of these items. Even the 1707 Royal document only states, "A shabraque of cloth, on which the crown of the king and his cypher (F4)... and a pair holstercaps lined with leather." We can only speculate on the color of the saddlecloth and pistol holter cover prior to 1714/1717. Possibilities are:
Sehested's: light gray trimmed red or red trimmed white/light gray
Følkershamb's: blue trimmed white and blue trimmed green (enlisted companies)
Nordenfjeldske Dragonkorps: gray trimmed green
All saddlecloths and pistol holster covers were trimmed with some type of material to prevent the edges from wearing out. The Royal monogram, F4, or the Norwegian Lion could also have appeared in the rear corners of the saddlecloth and on the pistol holster cover.
On 24 October 1711 all saddlecloths and pistol holster covers in the Danish Army were to be made of red cloth with embroidery in the same color as the regiments cuffs and lining (probably with a mirrored F4 monogram with a crown over it, or district coat-of-arms as decorations in the schabraque corners and on the pistol covers). This probably came into effect in the Norwegian Army with the introduction of the double-breasted red surtout between 1714 and 1717.
1. Søndenfjeldske: red trimmed white
2. Søndenfjeldske: red trimmed blue
Nordenfjeldske Dragonkorps: red trimmed green
The Royal Monogram, F4, or the Norwegian Lion undoubtedly appeared on the rear corners of the saddlecloth and the pistol holster cover. These could have been in yellow, the same color as the trim or in mixed colors.
Horse Furniture: Probably black leather with white metal or brass fittings.
Drummers, Kettledrummers and Oboists: Essentially these wore the same uniform as the common dragoons with a few exceptions. The hat was edged with galoon (color unknown, but probably silver). The coat was trimmed with 30 alen (0.6277 m) of wide braid and 18 alen of narrow braid. The braid was made of camel hair and thread or yarn. The color of the braid is unknown, but probably in the button color or a mixture of the metal button color and the facing color. The location of the braid on the coat is also unknown; but one can surmise that it appeared as edging on the cuffs, pockets and buttonholes, along the coat edges and in the coat seams. It may also have been placed as horizontal stripes on the sleeves. Elkskin gloves. Drums were made of wood and painted probably the same as infanttry drums. Although kettledrummers are listed on the establishment of Sehested's and Følkershamb's regiments, only Sehested's is known to have actually had kettledrums.
Noncommissioned Officers: Essentially the same uniform as the common dragoon with a few exceptions. The hat was edged with galoon. The color is unknown, but probably silver. The buttonholes were stitched with camel hair, possibly in the regimental facing color or silver. Buckskin vest and breeches, and elkskin gloves. The vest had 42 brass buttons, probably smaller than the coat buttons, and there were three large, brass buttons on the breeches. No mention is made of galoon trim on the cuffs and pockets, which was a normal indication of NCO rank. The 1707 Royal document eliminated these; however, it is unknown whether or not this was actually followed.
Officers: Officers were allowed to purchase their own uniforms as long as they followed the uniform model of the colonel, and the uniform was in the regimental colors. In essence the uniform of the officers was similar to that of the common dragoon, but the material used was of a finer quality and quantity. For example, the cloth used for the cuffs and lining of the officers' coat and cloak of Sehested's Regiment was carmoisin, a bright red. The vest and breeches were in the regimental facing color, and there were 48 gilded buttons on the vest, most probably smaller than those on the coat, which had 36(34) gilded zinc buttons. The buttonholes on the coat and vest were stitched with camel hair either in the regimental facing color or gold. The hat was edged in narrow galoon, probably gold. No mention is made of a cockade or rosette on the hat, but a black cockade probably made an appearance late in the period. There is also no mention of a sash, but one could have been worn. If so, it was most likely in the regimental color. The saddlecloth and pistol holster covers were probably edged in gold.
Dragoon Uniform Table
Tessin Vaupel Unit Coat Facings Note 1661 741 Sehesteds Dragonregiment
(1710 Kruses, 1714 1. Søndenfjeldske)
Light Gray Red 1714- Red 1714- White 1 1670/1 743 Følkershambs Dragonregiment
(1711 Øtkens, 1714 2. Søndenfjeldske)
1714- Red 1714- Blue 1 1702 745 Nordenfjeldske Dragonkorps
Halcke, 1717 Reichwein, 1718 Motzfeldt
Gray Green 2 1717-Red 1717-Green 1719 753 Poulsens Geworbne Dragonregiment ? ? 3
1. This uniform was authorized and ordered in 1714, but was probably not received until later. Both regiments are recorded as being in this new uniform by 1717.
2. The regiment was established 12 April 1701 from the five companies (2 utskrevne from Sehested's, 2 utskrevne and 1 geworbne from Følkershamb's) which were stationed in Nordenfjelds. The companies initially retained the uniform of their original regiment:
Two companies - light gray coat with red facings.
Two companies - blue coat with white facings.
One company - blue coat with green facings.
1702. Light gray coats with green facings.
1714. The regimental commander reported that the men were still wearing the coats which were delivered when the regiment was raised. (Vaupell, II, 745)
1716. Hat, vadmel coat with green cuffs and lining, leather breeches, half boots.
3. When initially formed the companies probably wore the uniforms of the regiments to which they had originally belonged.
Plate 5 - Norwegian Dragoons
Very little information has come to light on artillery uniforms. We know that in 1685 artillerymen were dressed in violet faced green. In 1711 new uniform colors were authorized - red faced violet. There is some information to suggest that in the intervening years a gray uniform faced red, later faced blue, was worn. Perhaps these intervening uniforms were interim dress, or they could represent the uniform adopted by individual artillery companies, since these were based on individual fortresses. If artillery uniforms followed their infantry counterparts, the coat was single-breasted in 1700 with cuffs, lining, vest, breeches and stockings in the facing color. With the introduction of the surtout 1709/1711 the coat became red and was double-breasted with 34 buttons like the infantry. The coat lining and cuffs, vest, breeches and stockings were in the facing color. Despite the fact that violet is listed as the facing color in 1711, blue have been used instead as quantities of this color were already on hand. Except for one reference to a kabuds in 1709, artillerymen appear to have worn a hat, which was probably trimmed with yellow tape. Coat buttons appear to have been brass. A sword was suspended from a waistbelt of buff leather. Shoes were black leather with a brass buckle. The stockings were secured just below the knee with a strap of brown or black leather.
Gun carriages were painted red with yellow metal parts.
Artillery Uniform Table
Vaupel Coat Facing 739 1685- Violet Green 1711 - Red Violet 1720 - Red Blue
1697. Steel gray coat, red lining and cuffs, cloth cossack in the same color as the coat, black hat. Crewmen: steel gray cloth cassock with red lining.
1709. Resolution: Sourtout of red cloth with blue facings (lining and cuffs), together with a dress coat of blue cloth with red facings - the same as the other two Artillery Corps. (Does not appear to have been implemented.)
1710. Steel gray coat, blue lining and camisol, leather breeches, riding cap (?) or kabuds.
1711. Red coat, violet lining and breeches. The Danish and Holstein artillery were also authorized uniforms with violet facings, but probably used blue facings because blue cloth was already on hand. The same situation may have existed in Norway.
1713. Artillery train personnel: Gray coat of vadmel, red cuffs, brass buttons.
1720. Red coat and stockings, blue facings and lining.
Plate 6 - Norwegian Artillery
Notes on the Norwegian Army - Table of Contents