NORWEGIAN ARMY
ORGANIZATION
1699-1720

 

Introduction

In 1700 the Kingdoms of Norway and Denmark were united in a personal union under the King, Frederik 4. Each maintained its own separate military establishment; although, officers moved freely between them. Together they maintained a common fleet (fellesflåten); and, in addition, Norway maintained a coastal or galley flotilla (skærgårdsflotiljen).

 

Conscription System

Although the Norwegian Army had a few enlisted units, it was primarily a conscript army, in contrast to the Danish Army, which was predominantly an enlisted army. Conscription was based on the farming population. For the infantry, two "full" farmsteads (four "half" farmsteads, etc.) were combined to form a legd. Each legd provided one so-called utskreven soldier; two legd provided one reserve soldier. A "full" farmstead was determined by the amount of grain produced yearly. Two "full" farmsteads or a legd were regarded as containing 3 to 4 farms with 5 to 7 houses.

Royal, noble and clerical farmsteads, as well as those belonging to wealthy farmers were each designated a kvarter, and were required to provide a cavalryman or dragoon with horse. A certain number of these kvarter were assigned to each cavalry and dragoon company. In 1692 every four kvarter were required to provide a dreng. The term dreng is difficult to translate accurately. They were a type of reserve cavalryman or dragoon. In peacetime they were trained and exercised by the company officers. In war they followed the company and took care of the company's horses, tents and other train items; and they were used as replacements with the death or departure of the cavalryman or dragoon.

Before preceeding further, it is best to address the issue of horses in the Norwegian Army. The vast majority of horses available for the mounted troops, the artillery and the train were what we today would call ponies, much smaller than the cavalry horses of Western and Central Europe. In addition to their small size, there was almost always a shortage. This had a direct effect of the amount of field artillery available in the field, and the size of any train supporting active field operations. In addition, a number of companies in each of the dragoon regiments were dismounted at any one time.

 

 

General and Selected Levy

One of the oldest provisions in Norwegian law required every male capable of bearing arms to report in defense of his country (district, parish or hamlet) when it was attacked. The military value of the General Levy was adversely affected in 1628 and 1641 with the founding of the conscript army, which drew the best men from the local communities into its ranks; however, over time men who had completed their military service again became part of the General Levy.

The General Levy was used quite extensively in the first three wars of the 17th Century - Hannibalsfeiden (1643-45), Krabbekrigen (1657-58) and Bjelkefeiden (1659-60). They were used to guard the border and protect important strategic points, freeing up the Army for active operations. The General Levy of the farming population was adequate for local defense against raids, but it was inadequate for sustained or offensive actions. It lacked training and a fixed military organization, it was commanded by local civilian officials, and its long-term use had a devastating effect on the farming economy.

The experiences from these early wars showed that it was desirable to increase the military efficiency and effectiveness of the General Levy, and at the same time lessen the economic effects of calling up the entire General Levy of a district. The solution was to organize a selected (utvalg) force out of the General Levy. On 16 August 1673 Statholder (Viceroy) Ulrik Fredrik Gyldenløve issued instructions to form a Selected (utvalg) Levy. Normally, one man, "the best and most capable", was selected from each legd; but if a legd had a large male population, two or three could be taken. The local civilian officials were responsible for maintaining the readiness of the Selected Levy. They were to meet and exercise four times a year. They were organized into companies whose districts corresponded to the company districts of the Conscripted Army. The local bailiff or tax collector was the captain of the company. In addition, there was a lieutenant, 3 sergeants, 3 corporals and 2 drummers. From the beginning Army officers were to have nothing to do with the Selected Levy, which was entirely controlled by civilian authorities. Only when the companies of the Selected Levy arrived in the area of operations did they come under the control of the military authorities. The farmers remaining at home were responsible for providing food, weapons and ammunition.

This Selected Levy were known by a number of different names - de inrullerte (the enrolled), de utvalgte (the selected), annenhver man (every other man), væbnede bonder (armed farmers) and landdragoner. During the Great Northern War, it was the term landdragoner that became dominate.

 

Organization

1699-1700

On 25 August 1699 on the death of Christian 5 the Norwegian Army consisted of the following:

General Staff

Stattholder (Viceroy)and Commanding General - Feltmarskal Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve
Commanding General (3 October 1699) - Feltmarskal Gustav Vilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg
Feltmarskalløjtnant Christian Gyldenløve (left Norway in 1701 to command the auxiliary corps destined for Austrian service)
Generalmajor Johan Vibe
Generalmajor Hans Ernst Tritzschler
Brigader Caspar Hermann Hausmann

Infantry

* Geworbne (Enlisted)

Hausmanns Geworbne Regiment (Brigader C.H. Hausmann)
Gyldenløves Geworbne Regiment
(Feltmarskalløjtnant C. Gyldenløve)
2 Garrison Companies
, 1 each in Bergen and Trondhjem

Each of the geworbne regiments consisted of a regimental staff, 8 musketeer companies and 1 grenadier company organized as follows:

Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Regimental Quartermaster
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
4 - Skalmajeblæsere (Oboists)
1 - Provost with Stock Man
Grenadier Company:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
100 - Grenadiers
Musketeer Company:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
10 - Lance Corporals
80 - Musketeers

 

Each of the garrison companies numbered 135 men organized as follows:

1 - Major
1 - Senior Lieutenant
1 - Second Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
3 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
2 - Drummers
1 - Surgeon's Assistant
1 - Stock Man
120 - Musketeers

In the middle of July 1700 both geworbne regiments were dispatched to Holstein, but contrary winds delayed their arrival in Glückstadt until after peace had been signed at Traventhal. After giving up many of their men to the Danish enlisted regiments, both regiments returned to Norway on 19 September 1700.

* National (Conscripted)

Akershusiske National Regiment (1,360)
Oplandske National Regiment (1,369)
Smålenske National Regiment (1,137)
Vesterlenske National Regiment (1,332)
Bergenhusiske National Regiment (1,398)
Trondjemske National Regiment (2,072)

All regiments had 9 utskrevne (conscripted) companies, except for the Trondhjemske, which had 10; and 3 reserve companies, except for the Bergenhusiske and Trondhjemske, which had 5 each. The reserve companies are not included in the strengths above. Although authorized, the reserve companies were no where near complete in 1700. In many cases the soldiers had yet to be enrolled. Each conscripted (utskrevne) company had between 8-12 grenadiers. The strength of the regiments and companies varied because of the varying size and population of the regimental and company districts.

Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Adjutant
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
1 - Provost
Company Staff:
1 - Captain (Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major each had a company)
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
2 - Drummers

In the beginning of May 1700, 1,650 men, including officers, from the Bergenhusiske and Vesterlenske Regiments were organized in three battalions and sent to Copenhagen for service with the Fleet. When Charles XII landed on Zealand in early August, these three battalions were part of the force sent to oppose him. On 4 September 1700 these units returned to Norway.

Mounted

* Nationale Rytterregiment (Sehested)
8 nationale companies. Two of the companies were located in Nordenfjells (see map). Regimental organization was as follows:

Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Kettledrummer
Each Company:
1 - Captain (The Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major each had a company)
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Cornet
1 - Quartermaster
3 - Corporals
1 - Trumpeter
1 - Saddlemaker
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
1 - Servant
60 - Troopers
15 - Reserve Troopers (Drenge)

 

* Dragonregiment (Følckershamb)
6 conscripted (nationale) and 4 enlisted (geworbne) companies each of 100 men. 2 conscripted (nationale) and 2 enlisted (geworbne) companies were located Nordenfjells. The enlisted (geworbne) companies were not on active duty. They were men who had completed their service, and in return for a small amount of pay committed themselves to serve in wartime. These companies also lacked horses in peacetime, which had to be procured at the outbreak of war.

Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
4 - Oboists
Each Company:
1 - Captain (the Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major each had a company)
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
1 - Sergeant
3 - Corporals
100 - Dragoons
25 - Reserve Dragoons (Drenge)

 

* Artillery - Geworbne (Enlisted)

One regiment of seven companies of varying size, each connected to one of the fortresses - Fredriksten, Fredrikstad, Akershus, Kongsvinger, Kristiansand, Bergenhus and Trondhjem. If a field artillery force were needed, one would be formed ad hoc based on the particular needs of the time, and the resources available. In 1699 the artillery under Lieutenant Colonel David Felber numbered 260 including 13 officers:

1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
4 - Captains
7 - Lieutenants
7 - Stykjunker (Master Sergeants)
10 - Fyrværkere (Pyrotechnist)
6 - Arkelimestre
65 - Konstabler (Gunners)
130 - Håndlangere (Crewmen)
1 - Minørmester (Master Miner)
7- Minørsvende ( Miner Journeymen)
5 - Lavetmagere and Tømrere (Gun Carriage Makers and Carpenters)
5 - Grovsmede (Blacksmiths)
5 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmiths)
3 - Hjulmænd (Wheelwrights)
3 - Bødkere (Coopers)

 

* Marines

In 1700 there were 5 conscripted (utskrevne) companies and 1 enlisted (geworbent) company. The latter company was dedicated to the galley flotilla (skærgårdsflotiljen). Each company had an authorized strength of 200 men, and a Prima Plana of 1 Lieutenant, 1 Mønsterskriver (Clerk), 2 Høgbåtsman (Petty Officers), Bådmandsmater (Boatswain's Mates) and 1 Drummer. These units were in such poor condition they never saw service, and disappeared from the rolls sometime after 1703.

 

 

1701-1709

1. General Staff

Commanding General - Feltmarskal Gustav Vilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg (left Norway following the Treaty of Traventhal in August 1700, and except for a short visit in 1704, he never returned to Norway).
Generalmajor (Generalløitnant 1708) Hans Ernst v. Tritzschler (defacto Commanding General after Wedel-Jarlsberg's departure).
Brigader (Generalmajor 1703) Caspar Herman Hausmann
Brigader (Generalmajor 1709) Georg Christian Schultz
Colonel (Brigader 1702) Caspar Christoffer Brockenhuus
Colonel (Brigader 1704) Albrecht Christopher v. Heinen
Colonel (Brigader 1704) Jens Maltesen Sehested
Colonel (Brigader 1708) Franz Wilhelm von Følckersamb
Colonel (Brigader 1708) Arvid Christian Storm

 

2. Geworbne Regiment. In 1701 the two enlisted (geworbne) regiments were combined in one regiment under Hausmann, in 1704 Cicignon. The regiment consisted of 16 companies of 100 men each. It also was known as the Norske Geworbne Regiment. Regimental organization was as follows:

Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Regimental Quartermaster
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Adjutant
1 - Chaplain
1 - Surgeon
1 - Wagon Master
4 - Oboists
1 - Provost with Stock Man
16 Companies each of:
1 - Captain
1 - Senior Lieutenant
1 - Second Lieutenant (Ensign)
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
10 - Lance Corporals
12 - Grenadiers
78 - Musketeers

 

3. Dragoon Regiments.

In 1701 the mounted arm also was reorganized. The rytterregiment was reduced to a dragoon regiment and Følkershambs Dragonregiment was reorganized. Two dragoon regiments (Sehesteds and Følkershambs) and a dragoon corps (Nordenfjells) were formed. The two dragoon regiments were located in Southern Norway, while the dragoon corps was located in the north around Trondhjem. The organizational details of these units were as follows:

a. Sehesteds (1710 Kruses, 1714 1. Søndenfjeldske) Dragonregiment, also called De hvite dragoner (The White Dragoons): 6 conscripted (utskrevne) companies (600 dragoons and 150 reserve dragoons):

 Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
1 - Kettledrummer
4 - Oboists
1 - Provost with Stock Man
6 utskrevne companies each of:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
2 - Artisans (Saddler and Blacksmith)
100 - Dragoons
25 - Reserve Dragoons

 

b. Følkershambs (1711 Øtkens, 1714 2. Søndenfjeldske) Dragonregiment, also called De blå dragoner (The Blue Dragoons): 4 conscripted (utskrevne) and 3 enlisted (geworbne) companies (700 dragoons and 100 reserve dragoons):

 Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
1 - Kettledrummer
4 - Oboists
1 - Provost together with a Stock Man
4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies each of:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
2 - Artisans (Saddler and Blacksmith)
100 - Dragoons
25 - Reserve Dragoons
3 enlisted (geworbne) companies each of:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
100 - Dragoons

 

c. Nordenfjelske (Halcke, 1717 Reichwein, 1718 Motzfeldt) Dragonkorps: 4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies and 1 enlisted (geworbne) company (500 dragoons and 100 reserve dragoons):

 Regimental Staff:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Surgeon
1 - Provost together with Stock Man
 4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies each of:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
2 - Artisans (Saddler and Blacksmith)
100 - Dragoons
25 - Reserve Dragoons
1 enlisted (geworbent) company of:
1 - Captain
1 - Lieutenant
1 - Ensign
1 - Capitaine d' Armes (NCO)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
1 - Drummer
100 - Dragoons

On 26 March 1707 the King approved Halcke's request for 12 grenadiers in each company.

 

1709 - 1717

1. General Staff

Commanding General (through July 1710) - Generalløitnant Hans Ernst v. Tritzschler
Commanding General and Visestattholder ( July 1710 - April 1712) - Ulrich Frederik Woldemar Løwendal
Commanding General (1712-1716) - Generalmajor (Generalløitnant 1711) Caspar Herman Hausmann
Commanding General (1716-1718) - Generalløitnant Erhardt Wedell (arrived in Norway January 1717)
Generalmajor Georg Christian Schultz (retired 1711)
Brigader (Generalmajor 1710) Albrecht Christopher v. Heinen (died 1712)
Brigader (Generalmajor 1710) Jens Maltesen Sehested (retired as Generalløitnant 1716)
Brigader (Generalmajor 1710) Franz Wilhelm von Følckersamb (died 1713)
Brigader (Generalmajor 1710) Arvid Christian Storm (retired 1712)
Colonel (Brigader 1709, Generalmajor 1710, Generalløitnant 1716) Barthold Heinrich von Lützow (senior commander during 1716 campaign)
Colonel (Brigader 1710) Vincents Heinrich de Sesterfleth (died 1711)
Colonel (Brigader 1710, Generalmajor 1713) Jean Caspar de Cicignon
Colonel (Brigader 1711) Poul Christian Halcke (died 1717)
Colonel (Brigader 1710, Generalmajor 1716) Ove Wind (senior commander in Trondelag 1717)
Colonel (Brigader 1712, Generalmajor 1716 ) Vincent Budde

2. On 28 October 1709 the Norwegian Army was organized as follows:

Cicignons Geworbne Regiment
16 companies: 1,600 men   Total: 1,774 (including Prima Plana)

Akershusiske National Regiment
9 utskrevne companies: 1,204 men.
3 reserve companies: 601 men.  Total: 1,917 (including Prima Plana)

Smålenske National Regiment
9 utskrevne companies: 1,224 (1,273) men.
3 reserve companies: 570 (572) men.   Total: 1,906 (1,957) (including Prima Plana)

Oplandske National Regiment
9 utskrevne companies: 1,129 men.
3 reserve companies: 562 men.    Total: 1,803 (including Prima Plana)

Vesterlenske National Regiment
10 utskrevne companies: 1,334 men.
3 reserve companies: 666 men.   Total: 2,122 (including Prima Plana)

Bergenhusiske National Regiment
9 utskrevne companies: 1,310 men.
5 reserve companies: 656 men.  Total: 2,090 (including Prima Plana)

Trondheimske National Regiment
10 utskrevne companies: 1,929 men.
5 reserve companies: 959 men.  Total: 3,022 (including Prima Plana)

The regimental staff of each nationale
regiment consisted of:
1 - Colonel
1 - Lieutenant Colonel
1 - Major
1 - Auditør (Judge Advocate)
1 - Surgeon
1 - Bøssemaker (Gunsmith)
1 - Pioneer
The Prima Plana for each conscripted
(utskrevne) company
was:
1 - Captain
1 - Senior Lieutenant
1 - Second Lieutenant (Ensign)
2 - Sergeants
3 - Corporals
2 - Drummers
The Prima Plana for each reserve
company
was:
1 - Captain
1 - Senior Lieutenant
1 - Sergeant
2 - Corporals
1 - Drummer

There was no separate grenadier company in a national regiment. Each company (utskrevne) contained between 8 and 12 grenadiers; however, in the field these were probably combined in a company-size unit under a lieutenant or captain.

The reserve companies were generally used for garrison duty in the fortresses and redoubts.

 

Sehesteds (1710 Kruses, 1714 1. Søndenfjeldske) Dragonregiment
6 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 600 dragoons and 150 reserve dragoons.
                                                                                                                       Total: 834 (including Prima Plana)

Følkershambs (1711 Øtkens, 1714 2. Søndenfjeldske) Dragonregiment
4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 400 dragoons and 100 reserve dragoons.
3 enlisted (geworbne) companies: 300 dragoons.
                                                                                                                       Total: 870 (including Prima Plana)

Nordenfjeldske (Halcke, 1717 Reichwein, 1718 Motzfeldt) Dragonkorps
4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 400 dragoons and 100 reserve dragoons.
1 enlisted (geworbne) company: 100 dragoons.
                                                                                                                      Total: 662 (including Prima Plana)

 

3. Trondhjemske Regiment.

On 12 April 1710 the King ordered the Trondhjemske Nationale Regiment divided, creating two regiments: 1. (Nordre) and 2. (Søndre) Trondhjemske National Regiments. Each regiment consisted of 12 companies of 108 men each in two battalions. The distinction between utskrevne and reserve companies disappeared, and the individual companies became uniform in strength.

4. Rørosske Frivillige Bergjegerkorpset.

This unit was created in 1710 of volunteers from the miners who worked in the copper mines around Røros. Miners were exempt from the normal conscription laws. According to Vaupel, Captain Kristian Herman Rosenkranz commanded the Corps, and it was 400 men strong in three companies. Armament consisted partly of rifles (?) and partly of 1.88-meter long staffs, which had iron points in the form of a saber.

5. Landdragoner.

During the Gyldenløvefeiden (1675-79), the Selected Levy was used extensively and maintained at full strength. However, during the 20 years of peace that followed, it was neglected and fell into decay. With the advent of war in 1700 efforts were made to improve its efficiency, and through 1703 it was again an effective force; but from 1704 through 1709 it once more was neglected. When Denmark-Norway entered the war in 1709, emphasis was once again placed on the Selected Levy (landdragoner). By 1711/1712 there were 3,576 landdragoner in 20 companies in Østlandet and 2,131 landdragoner in 9 companies in Trøndelag. These units were used as garrison in fortresses and as border security forces. There was no organization above the company level. Eventually, the landdragoner came to be composed only of men with previous military experience, particularly after the break up of the Kraghske infanteriregiment in late 1710. In the first half of 1712 there was an effort to form mounted landdragon units, but the effort was placed on hold in July 1712 when the King ordered defensive operations only in Norway, and in December 1712 the King ordered the effort ended.

Vaupel (768-769) and Tessin (1710/1 and 1710/2) list two regiments of Landdragoner, a Søndenfeldske under a Jørgen Reichwein and a Nordenfeldske under a Henrik Ramm. In reality the landdragoner were not organized above company level. It is possible that these two individuals were the Inspector Generals of the landdragoner in the respective parts of the country, and were responsible for clothing, equipment and training - purely administrative supervision.

6. Rytterregiment 1709-1710.

In October 1709 the King ordered a cavalry regiment raised in Norway. It was decided that each religious and civilian office holder should provide one or several fully equipped cavalrymen, together with horse, saddle and other equipment. Three companies were to be raised in Østlandet (the area east of the Oslofjord) and two companies were to be raised in Trøndelag (the area around the Trondhjemsfjord). The King's order was dated 14 December 1709, but did not arrive in Norway until the beginning of February 1710. From the beginning there were problems. There were difficulties in procuring the necessary horses, both in size and quantity, and horse furniture. There was general dissatisfaction among those who were required to provide man and horse, including increasing complaints about the fairness of the requirements. Work proceeded slowly. On 24 May 1710 the King approved the payment of money in lieu of providing a fully equipped and mounted cavalryman. The work of raising the regiment ceased in August of 1710. On 17 October 1710 the King officially ended the attempt. Those men already raised were assigned to the dragoon regiments, along with complete suits of iron armor dating from the early 1600's, including both closed and open helmets, which had been sent to Norway from the Tøjhus (Arsenal) in Copenhagen for this cavalry regiment. Whether or not this armour was ever used is unknown. At best, a cuirass front plate might have been worn.

7. Kraghske Infanteriregiment.

On 5 October 1709 the King authorized the formation of a new infantry regiment in Southern Norway to be made up of ex-soldiers who had completed their military service since 1705. It was not until 28 April 1710 that the order finally went out to civilian authorities to begin the enrollment of the best men in their districts even if they were already landdragoner. By 24 May 1710 the staff and company commanders had been designated. The regimental commander was Arent Kragh, Lieutenant Colonel of the Smålandske Nationale Regiment. By the end of July 1710 the regiment had reached strength of 1,100 non-commissioned officers and other ranks. All had completed at least 10 years of military service, and many were older men. The regiment was organized in 8 companies; however, the regiment's existence was to be short lived. On 20 October 1710 the men of the regiment were sent home. The Commanding General in Norway had decided to dissolve the regiment and on 14 November 1710 sent his recommendation to the King who subsequently approved it. The primary reasons for disbanding the regiment were the age of many of the men, and the economic and financial costs in maintaining the regiment.

In June 1710 an attempt to form a similar regiment in Northern Norway was ordered by the King, but by August 1710 it was realized that a shortage of available manpower made this difficult if not impossible. In September 1710 work on establishing this regiment ceased.

8. Skiløpere and Fyrrører.

On 4 October 1709 the King ordered 2 companies of ski troops (skiløpere) raised in Solør-Østerdal and Telemark. This effort achieved little success. On 1 March 1710 the tax collector in Solør-Østerdal had raised 70 men, but without officers, uniforms or weapons. This was purely the result of a local levy of farmers. The attempt to form skiløper companies was temporarily abandoned.

On 1 October 1710 the Commanding General in Norway asked permission to raise a company of skiløper and a company of fyrrør (fyrrør roughly translates as "fire tube" and was first used in the 16th Century to designate an early firearm. By the 18th Century it probably came to mean a marksmen or hunter, similar to the German jäger). The King approved the request on 19 November 1710, and in December orders were issued to recruit "volunteers" for the two companies. Recruitment was authorized from the nationale and Kraghske regiments. Those selected were to be "the best and healthiest men". Recruits were promised Lance Corporal pay and a "claim or right to lease a farm after the war". Enlistment would be for the duration of the war. Both companies were officially established on 1 January 1711; however, they were not complete. Major G.v. Koss was designated the commander of both companies on 9 January, and the strength of each company was established at 3 officers, 10 non-commissioned officers, 3 drummers and 150 men. After the companies were raised, their strength was maintained through normal, early 18th Century enlistment practices. The fyrrør company was posted to Fredriksten, and was at full strength on 1 February 1711. The skiløper company was assigned to Kongsvinger, and was at full strength by the end of Spring 1711. Based on the pay they received, the same as grenadiers, both units were probably considered elite. These units, despite their names, were probably interchangeable - the skiløper laying aside their skis in summer and operating on foot, and the fyrrør using skis in winter. These units were used primarily for reconnaissance, security and cross-border operations. In 1713, along with three infantry regiments, the fyrrør company was shipped to Northern Germany where it joined the Danish Army. The men of the fyrrør company were later incorporated in the Danish Grenadier Corps (Grenaderkorpset).

9. New Reserve.

When it was decided to disband the Kraghske Infanteriregiment in late 1710, it was also decided to raise a second reserve, later called the "new reserve". Every two legder had to provide a "new reserve" soldier in addition to the two standing soldiers and one "old" reserve soldier they already provided. Initially, these "new" reserve soldiers were enrolled, but remained at home and were not organized in companies. They were not assigned officers or noncommissioned officers, and they were exercised only when the regiment to which they belonged was in its home districts. Eventually, excess officers were located and assigned to the "new" reserve in Southern Norway where 12 "new" reserve companies, totaling 2,409 men, were formed, 3 each in the Smålandske, Akershusiske, Oplandske and Vesterlenske regiments. The "new" reserve in the Bergenhusiske and two Trondhjemske regimental districts, 1,617 men, were enrolled, but were not assigned officers, organized into companies or issued weapons, clothing or equipment.

10. Artillery.

In 1709 the artillery numbered 342 officers and men, including 79 gun sergeants and 160 crewmen. In the first half of 1711 a great deal of effort went into improving the organization and equipment of the artillery forces. Organizationally it was intended to set up 4 artillery companies, 1 pyrotechnic (ammunition) and artisan company and 1 stable unit. The artillery companies together were to have 12 officers, 30 pyrotechnic and assistant pyrotechnic personnel, 8 noncommissioned officers, 2 drummers, 135 gunners and assistant gunners and 10 others. The Pyrotechnic and Artisan Company was to consist of 59 men including command and the Stable unit was to have 241 men of which 230 were to be drivers.

The extent to which this organization was achieved is unknown; however, for the invasion of Båhuslen in 1711 the sources indicate that there were 4 company commanders and 72 gunners and assistant gunners present. It is certain that 2 artillery units were set up under two captains, which could be called companies. There was also the Pyrotechnic and Artisan Company, which included a number of miners and bridging personnel, and artillery personnel on board the galley flotilla.

The field artillery weapons included in the invasion force consisted of:

6 - 12-pound metal cannons
4 - 8-pound metal cannons
9 - 6-pound metal cannons
16 - 3-pound metal cannon
2 - 2 ¾-pound metal cannon
2 - 36-pound metal howitzers
2 - 34-pound metal howitzers
50 - 10-pound hand mortars

11. At the end of 1716 two conscripted (utskrevne) companies and two enlisted (geworbne) companies were added to each of the Søndenfjeldske dragoon regiments. The organization and strength of the three dragoon regiments at this time was:

1. Søndenfjeldske Dragonregiment
8 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 800 dragoons and 200 reserve dragoons.
2 enlisted (geworbne) companies: 200 dragoons.
                                                                                                                      Total: 1,328 (including Prima Plana)

2. Søndenfjeldske Dragonregiment
6 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 600 dragoons and 150 reserve dragoons.
5 enlisted (geworbne) companies: 500 dragoons.
                                                                                                                       Total: 1,378 (including Prima Plana)

Nordenfjeldske (Halcke, 1717 Reichwein, 1718 Motzfeldt) Dragonkorps
4 conscripted (utskrevne) companies: 400 dragoons and 100 reserve dragoons.
1 enlisted (geworbent) company: 100 dragoons.
                                                                                                                       Total: 662 (including Prima Plana)

 

 

1717-1720

1. General Staff

Commanding General - Generalløitnant Erhardt Wedell
Commanding General (from May 1718)- Generalløitnant Barthold Heinrich von Lützow
Generalløitnant Georg Wilhelm von Sponneck
Generalmajor Hans Jacob Arnold
Generalmajor Jean Caspar de Cicignon
Generalmajor Adam Abraham Gaffron
Generalmajor Vincent Budde (from March 1718 Commanding General Nordenfjells)
Generalmajor Ulrich Christian Kruse

2. Infantry

A Royal Ordinance of 24 December 1717 ordered the division of each national regiment creating two regiments from one. In the case of the Trondhjemske, which already had been divided in 1710, a third regiment was to be raised. Each new regiment was to consist of 12 companies in two battalions. Each company was to have a strength of approximately 100 men, excluding prima plana. It was not until September 1718 that the division of the Akershusiske, Smålandske and Oplandske regiments began. The Vesterlenske regiment was divided in November and the Bergenhusiske in December 1718. The 3. Trondhjemske regiment was completed in January 1719. This division resulted in the disappearance of the distinction between conscripted (utskrevne) and "old" reserve companies, and for all practical purposes the landdragoner companies disappeared as they too were incorporated in the new regiments. In Southern Norway the remaining 1,200 landdragoner were formed in a regiment under the command of Hans Jacob Brun, which was also known as the 3. Akershusiske Regiment. By the beginning of 1719 the following the Norwegian Army had the following infantry regiments:

The Geworbne Regiment
1. (Vest) Akershusiske National Regiment
2. (Øst) Akershusiske National Regiment
3. Akershusiske National Regiment (Bruns landdragoner)
1. (Øst) Oplandske National Regiment
2. (Vest) Oplandske National Regiment
1. (Øst) Smålandske National Regiment
2. (Vest) Smålandske National Regiment
1. (Øst) Vesterlenske National Regiment
2. (Vest) Vesterlenske National Regiment
1. (Nordre) Bergenhusiske National Regiment
2. (Søndre) Bergenhusiske National Regiment
1. (Nordre) Trondhjemske National Regiment
2. (Søndre) Trondhjemske National Regiment
3. Trondhjemske National Regiment

Also in 1718 two skiløper companies were authorized Nordenfjells.

3. Dragoons

In 1719 the three dragoon regiments were reorganized. Each of the three regiments was to consist of 8 conscripted (utskrevne) companies of 75 men each. Two companies would form a squadron. The enlisted (geworbent) company of the Nordenfjeldske Dragonkorps was disbanded. The six enlisted (geworbne) companies from the two søndenfjeldske dragoon regiments were combined to establish a geworbent dragoon regiment Nordenfjells under the command of Colonel Chr. H. Poulsen, which was called Poulsens Geworbne Dragonregiment.

    Maps
Nordenfjells
Søndenfjells

Uniforms

Notes on the Norwegian Army - Table of Contents






















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