Infantry Colors 1699-1712
The term “color” indicates regimental color, which covers cuffs and coat lining, as well as possibly collar and buttonholes. Often, breeches were also in the regimental color. At the end of the 1600’s breeches were of leather, but these were beginning to be replaced around 1700 by cloth breeches throughout most of Europe. Stockings could also be in different colors, including the regimental color.
With the publication of the Royal Ordinance of 1701, Section 4 it was ordered that non-commissioned officers, drummers and men “ aus den Mäntels aber sollen ihnen so fort Leibröcken gemacht werden umb ihre neue Montierung damit desto besser zu schonen,” in it reference was made to the Resupply Ordinance of 1688.
In 1701 uniform items were to be replace every three years. The amount of material prescribed for the coat was 4 ellen* by 2 ellen of Lacken (coat material) wide, 3 1/4 ellen baize for the lining and 3 dozen buttons; for the cassock 5 ellen of Lacken and 3 3/4 ellen baize, together with 1 dozen buttons. In addition there were two hats, 1 (sword) belt toegether with a cartridge box and belt.
*Elle is an old Danish/Norwegian (and German) measurement especially for pieces of cloth. It is later called alen. In England it is called Ell, later yard. One Elle in singular and two Ellen in plural. It consists of 1 Elle = 2 fod (feet) = 4 kvarter (quarters). The measurement can be a little different depending on the country. The Danish Elle = 0,6277 m and the Swedish Elle for instance 0,5938 m.
Small clothes were to consist of a pair of breeches made from 1 1/4 ellen of Lacken with a lining of 2 ellen of linen. In addition, there was a pair of stockings, one shirt, one neckcloth, and a pair of shoes. All of the latter had a term of 1 1/2 years. Generally, more material went into a non-commissioned officers uniform, but it has never be explained why.
In 1707 a complete uniform change was to take place in the entire Army, since the cassock and coat were changed to the more modern “surtout” and kamisol (vest). The “surtout” is normally regarded as a single-breasted coat, but here it quickly meant the introduction of the double-breasted coat. However, there has never been any evidence for a Danish single-breasted coat. The base color remained white-gray, but the small clothes were often in the regimental color. The camisol, which was often made from the old discarded coat, came from reversing the old coat with the lining on the outside.
After the invasion of Pomerania and the blockade of Stralsund and Wismar 1711-1712, the equipment and uniforms were so worn out that the entire Army again had to be re-equipped. At the same time the King took the opportunity to change the Army’s basic color to red. It was determined the Guard regiments, dragons, and the national cavalry regiments (with the exception of the 2. Fynske) together with the “Hungarian” infantry regiments would be the first to have new uniforms, while the others would have to make do with new hats and small clothes. In the Rostgaard Collection in the Royal Library there is a uniform color list from 1711 which indicates the possibility the colored collars and stripes on the cuffs were already introduced for certain regiments.
This list could also be regarded as an introduction to the 1712 regulation in which the 1711 list was transferred and used with the new red uniforms, which was first accomplished in 1713. A total re-uniforming of the Army took 3-4 years or more, which can also be seen in later uniform regulations of 1716, 1720 and 1724-28.
Color Scheme for Danish Infantry 1699-1712
Tessin Vaupel Unit Color Note 1571 688 Drabantgarden crimson coat with blue 1. 1658/9 600 (S) Fodgarden paille (straw) coat with red 2. 1701/14 605 Grenaderkorpset red coat with blue 3. 1659/3 666 (A) Dronningens red coat with yellow 4.
All of the following infantry regiments had light gray/white coats.
1657/24 609 (A) Prins Christian dark red 5. 1658/8 637 (A + S) Prins Georg orange 6. 1657/32 627 (A+S) Prins Carl yellow 7. 1627/19 620 (A+S) Sjællanske dark blue 8. 1678/12 548 (A) Jyske red 9. 1679/3 615 (S) Fynske green 10. 1683/4 626 Schacks feuille morte 11. Schwärtzel from 1701 Hessen-Phillipstal from 1704 Zeppelin from 1710 1682 632 (A) Marine gray 12. 1675/19 692 (S) Oldenborgske Bataljon muscus 13. 1701/3 637 (A) 1. Infanteriregiment light blue 14. 1701/4 702 (A) 2. Infanteriregiment blue 14. 1701/6 703 (A) 3. Infanteriregiment yellow 14. 1701/2 704 (A) 4. Infanteriregiment red 14. 1702/2 704/509 (A) von Endens Bataljon || red 15. 1703 704/509 (A) von Malzahns Bataljon blue 16. 1702/3 702 (S) Würtemberg-Öels blue (|| yellow) 17. 1710/2 704 Hansens red 18. 1710/3 704 Baartig(I) red 19. 1711 705 von Callenbergs Bataljon unknown 20. 1712 705 von Kleppings Bataljon red 21.
Regiments marked with a (S) were completely or partially in the service of the Seapowers (England and Holland), and those marked with an (A) were in Austrian service. It is assumed that the regiments in foreign service retained their Danish regimental colors, but eventually changed the cut of the uniform to the more modern local cut. In such a way, those regiments enroute to Austria converted their cassocks to surtouts of the Austrian model. Officers, who were in Dutch service, wore an orange sash over the shoulder.
Vrigny. In the notes for the individual regiments there is often reference to “Vrigny”. Lacombe de Vrigny was secretary to the English Ambassador to Denmark. Following his service in Denmark, he described his experiences and published them in rather readable remembrances: Relation en forme de journal, d’un Voyage fait en Dannemarc, a la suite de Monsieur l’Envoye d’Angleterre, Rotterdam 1706. The book was so popular, that it was also published in an English edition, Travels Through Denmark and some Parts of Germany, London 1707. These remembrances provide a picture of contemporary Denmark, and here and there one finds information on military conditions and uniforms. In particular, the muster travel of 1702 in the company of the King and a description of our land militia in 1702, pp. 353-356.
Small figures of drabants can be found on different coronation pictures and a picture of Christian 5 in court. The impression is a large red cassock, and a red coat with blue cuffs. On the cassock there is C5 in gold. The uniform under Frederik 4 must be regarded as similar to the drabant in Worgewitz’s 1728 work.
The Corps was almost eliminated at the Battle of Helsingborg in 1710, where the drabants, who were all deserving officers, made very heroic efforts with different infantry regiments.
The strength was 57 men: 1 Captain (Colonel), 2 Leaders (førere), 2 Junior Leaders (underførere), 50 drabants, 1 Regimental Quartermaster and 1 Adjutant. The “Drabantgarden” was armed with firearms, which were used on parade and during marches to and from guard duty. Partisans were only used during actual guard duty.
In the Regulation of 1699 it reads, “ In addition to this red cassocks with yellow lining and a C5 on the left breast.” The cassock was converted to a surtout on 2 August 1702.
The cassock was introduced as a replacement for the “pierock” with the Order of 7 February 1683. The uniform undoubtedly received F4 as a mark instead of C5 on the
cassock at the accession or at the latest the annointment in 1701.
|| From 14 January 1701 for new uniforms will be required 24,700 alen straw colored (paille) and red cloth, 2,866 alen yellow and red plush together with 200 alen yellow velvet (which is purchased from foreign sources). (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
|| From 17 January 1705 new uniforms should be procured for the 96 grenadiers of the Guard. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
|| From 7 July 1705 the straw colored (paille) coats should be issued to the Garden til Fods, but in order to them, the older red surtouts should continue to be used in addition. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
In 1707 the officers again received a red uniform, which otherwise means only that they wore such when they met at the Royal residence. The officers were allowed to import, free of customs duty, 280 alen bright or splendid red cloth, 270 alen bright red “chabry”(a type of cloth), 110 alen straw-colored cloth, 40 pair of stockings, 16 pounds of gold lace for decoration and edging, 12 pounds of gold “trekorder”(a type of braiding), 130 dozen silver buttons for the cassock (?) and 130 dozen kamisol buttons. (Source: Andrup, who got it from Löwenskiold p. 165. The report is from 20 September 1707.)
At the same time silver lace was reported for non-commissioned officers, and oboists together with musicians were uniformed in “hofliberiet”. It has not been possible to determine what the colors of the “hofliberiet” were at that time, but they probably were the colors red-white-blue.
P. Kannik has in “Livgardens Historie” pictured an officer in a red coat with rich silver embroidery in a “tremmesystem” (a ladderwork of lace/embroidery between the buttons forming what appears to be the rungs of a ladder up the front of the coat) and a white sash. The figure was probably copied from Waldemar Møller’s great uniform work in the Tøjhuset. The original sources are unknown, but Møller is regarded as reliable. Similar ladderwork on the coat in gold or silver is often seen on officers from France, England and Brandenburg.
Private guardsman are shown in several regimental works in yellow coat with red ladderwork on the breast. Such ladderwork is also found on certain contemporary French Household regiments, and can of course have been copied in Denmark after Christian 5’s visit to Louis XIV. But a more probable explanation is a misinterpretation of what should be red buttonhole reinforcement. On the other hand, in all circumstances there are too few ladders on the different reconstructions. There should be eleven, as the coat for a guardsman and a common infantryman were the same.
|| From 4 June 1707 new uniforms for the Livgarden til Fods. For the surtout: 5 alen of straw colored (paille) cloth, 7 alen red English baize, 34 brass buttons and 1 1/8 alen crimson plush for cuffs and collar. For the cassock: 6 alen red cloth, 10 alen yellow baize, 10 buttons and 5/16 alen of plush for the collar. (Tuxen. Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
This unit’s 12 companies were formed from the grenadier companies of the enlisted regiments.
|| From 28 March 1702 the uniform regulation for the Grenaderkorpset is issued, but no colors are given. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.),but could have been red with yellow cuffs, especially if one thinks about the description below on the gilded grenadier caps. An ordinance of 20 April 1706 states the Corps’ buttons should be prepared by the goldsmiths in Copenhagen, despite the fact that the quality was illegally low according to the guild articles.
The Grenaderkorpset was equipped with straight swords with a special hilt (Order of 29 May 1702) on the request of Colonel Eickstedt after two companies were loaned to the “Fodgarden” and were equipped with these straight swords on their return. At the same time it was decided that non-commissioned officers, oboists, the regimental drummer and provost should carry “swords with a gilded hilt”, infantry swords.
The Corps’ uniform was established 29 January 1708 with deep red surtouts with light blue lining. The term was 2 years. The regiment received the new uniform in 1709, red with silver lace on the buttonholes and along all of the seams.
A contemporary spoke with enthusiasm about the elegant uniforms which these grenadiers received in 1709 (?), “at a time when war with Sweden was imminent”. He says, “that grenadier caps were genuinely gilded and that the price for each of them ran up to 12 rdl.” (Suhm. “Nye Samlinger”, vol II, p.7, E. Holm: “Danmark-Norges Historie 1660-1720”, vol II, p.257): “Frederik 4’s grenadiers were especially famous. They made an imposing impression, when they with dragging swords stoog guard at the doors of the castle’s entries in their red coats with wide silver lace on the buttonholes, with their silver edged bandoleers of yellow velvet and their genuinely gilded grenadier caps, each of which had the value of 2 tdr. of rye. The establishment of the regiment, 1300 men, cost 40,000 rdl, and it was the same year in which there was crop failure in the country. (F.Rist: “Fra Stovlettiden”, p. 227, after Riegels, “Frederik 4s historie”, vol II, p.47, Meyer: “Fredensborg”, p.61 and Suhm: “Nye Samlinger”, vol II, p. 9) Unfortunately, it has not been possible to locate the original source.
The color illustration in Vaupel is a reconstruction from a black and white engraving in “Traur-Rde welche Bey des Hochgebohrnen Herrn Christian Güldenleu - Leich-begängniss - gehalten worden”, Copenhagen 1709. (The copper engraving was made by Andreas Reinhardt 1704-1707 from a sketch by Gottfried Fuchs.)
One of the engravings show Gyldenløve’s (Christian 5’s half brother) funeral procession passing by Charlottenberg in 1703, and one sees among other things grenadiers around the coffin. Noteworthy are the pointed cuffs. The coloring of the plates in Vaupel were probably done by the artist F.C. Lund according the establishment of 1708, but obviously not known about the description of gilded grenadier caps and the yellow, silver trimmed, bandoleers.
|| From 29 November 1708 for the uniforms of the Grenaderkorpset officers 390 alen of bright or splendid red cloth, 50 alen of cornflower blue cloth for cartridge boxes, 216 alen of cornflower blue calico for lining together with silver lace etc. must be imported free of customs duty.(Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
|| From 6 September 1709 on Commander Eichstedt's application it is granted that the Grenaderkorps, which hitherto did not have any colours, must receive one per battalion, and he must create two ensigns. (Tuxen. See G. bd. 10, p.203.)
4. Dronningens Livregiment
“Wore also cassocks”, is written in the Regulation of 1699. In Vrigny under the date 11 July 1702 it is described how the regiment passed in review with 500 men. “Uniform red with yellow. Cuffs as well as the collar on the cassock are of yellow plush. Also the grenadier caps were of yellow plush, but with a black velvet front with silver embroidery, and in the middle in silver: “La Reine” (Queen).
The regimental name, Dronningen, would naturally be given as ‘la Reine” because his text was in French, but in reality it must have be either “Dronningen” or “Königin”. The German version sounds the most natural, even though the opposite has been argued by Scheunchen. It is his opinion, “ that the regiment always has had a special French connection” - which has to be a somewhat personal conclusion.
“Officers were clothed in scarlet and with white stockings. Hats with white feathers, and white silk sashes (around the waist).”
Grenadier caps of the miter type also are mentioned in a contemporary description from 1705 for the battalion which was sent to Austria. The cap is described in a troop parade as “of red plush with a yellow shield and on the back the name “Dronningen” embroidered in silver.” The spelling possibly Danish, because it was the Austrian Empress herself who asked the Danish Ambassador what the word meant. Had it been in German or French, one has to assume that the Empress would have understood the word.
Buttons were of brass. The regiment was described at Gadebusch in 1712 as dressed in “both red, blue (Swedish) and gray uniforms. There were coats with 40 different colored patches.” The condition of the uniforms was so poor that the regiment was forced to take uniforms from one battalion and let it remain in quarters, in order to equip the other so that it could participate in the battle.
5. Prins Christians Regiment
“Also wore cassocks” (1699).
Changed its name with the accession of the new King in 1699 from Prins Frederik to Regiment Kronprinz. Over time it was also called Regiment Prins Christian.
Vrigny mentions,13 July 1702, Regiment Prins Christian which belonged to Brigadier Cragg (Kragh), and reports: “ The men are clothed in iron gray with red and have cloaks (“manteaus” - overcoats. Should be considered as cassocks) in the same color. Also the officers have the same colors, not including lining and sash. Red stockings. Grenadiers, which only made up a part of the companies, have caps completely of fur, which “looked good ”. In Austria the regiment is mentioned as having cloth grenadier caps with the regimental name embroidered on the back.
6. Prins Georgs Regiment
In several published sources the regiment is mentioned incorrectly in green coats. This is a result of a misreading by Vaupel’s publisher of the good, old Colonel’s handwriting. Errors are also found in other of Vaupel’s uniform color descriptions, where steel gray has been changed to steel green.
7. Prins Carls Regiment
“Both coat and cassock” (1699)
Here it appears that not all of the “pierock” have been replaced as yet.
Vrigny writes under the date 7 July 1702, “ Rendsborg. Outside the city we saw a regiment of new dragoons (Würtemberg-Öels) raised by Colonel Bonart. It should have consisted of 1,000 men in 10 companies, but as yet only half had been enlisted. They were clothed in white with yellow cuffs.” This color information is not in agreement with the enlistment patent for Würtemberg-Öels Dragoner which is in the Rigsarkivet, where blue coats with red cuffs are mentioned. This also does not seem to be correct for dragons because white was the coat color for infantry, while dragoons had colored coats as a sign of recognition. This could be confusion with Regiment Prins Carl which was in garrison around Itzehoe.
8. Sjællandske Regiment
“Both coat and cassock” (1699).
Order Nr. 191/1707 mentions brass buttons and blue wool for buttonholes, together with blue breeches and stockings.
9. Jyske Regiment
“Both coat and cassock” (1699).
The regiment is mentioned by Vrigny, under the date 10 July 1702, as clothed completely in white with red and the same colors for the overcoat. Red stockings and black neckcloth. black hat with edging of red and white wool, and a cockade in the same colors (“meme galon”).
10. Fynske Regiment
It is mentioned by Virgny, under the date 20 July 1702, as led by Brigadier Schonenfeldt. Virgny writes: “ Their uniform is very pleasing to me. Gray-white with green lining. 'Des bas', or small clothes (here means vest, breeches and also stockings) green, red collar. The hats have yellow braid and a green and white cocked. All have gray-white cloaks (manteau) with green lining, almost as farmers, and they appear as if they were on a hunt. Officers had coats (justeaucorps) in gray-white, all the same with the vest in the same color and with gold lace. Their small clothes were green.”
11. Schacks Regiment
The blue color which is mentioned in Vaupel is certainly a mixture among the battalions with the incorporation of the regiment in the Sjællandske Regiment in 1714. The Regulation of 1699 mentions feuille morte - “strong yellow”.
In the period 1691 to 1695 the regimental color was white, thereafter light gray. For further see “Postmaster in Malmø 1710” below, which could indicate a uniform change.
|| From 19 March 1707 the Marineregiment in the future will not have cassocks, but rather surtouts of white-gray cloth, blue baize lining, cuffs and collar, hat with braid. Blue breeches and blue stockings. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
Scheunchen mentions blue, probably from Vaupel. The regulation of 1699 mentions muscus.
14. Ungarske Regimenter (Hungarian Regiments)
(1., 2., 3. and 4. Infanteriregiment)
The colors worn in Austrian service are unknown, but it must be assumed that they were they same as those in the Specification July Nr. 134/1709 (which is not in agreement with Generalstabens Vol. III, p.56 where among other things the regimental commanders are divided differently) with the title, “ Nyuniformeringen af de fra Ungarn kommende Tropper 1709”. All wore light gray coats with the following lining:
1. Regiment blue and with a collar.
2. Regiment (Kragh) blue (3?).
3. Regiment (Rausch) yellow (4?).
4. Regiment (Wittenau) red (2?)
The numbers in parenthesis are mentioned in the Generalstaben’s conclusions , and one is not any wiser with a comparison with 1712.
Vaupel mentions light blue for the 1. Regiment, which could not take part at Helsingborg in 1710, because in Frederik 4’s opinion “ the purchased regimental cloth was in the wrong shade”. A detail the King must have regretted shortly thereafter.
|| At the Battle of Gadebusch, 1712 Staffelts, earlier the 1.Regiment, lost one colour.(Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
15. von Endens Bataljon
The battalion was recruited in Oldenborg in 1703 (1702?) as a part of the contingent for Austria. In Tyrol it was reinforced with K.G.v. Malzahn’s Battalion and the unit was thereafter called the 4. Infanteriregiment.
|| From 25 October 1701 the enlistment patent prescribed blue with white facings. When the regiment returned from Austrian service in 1709, the regiment had gray coats with red facings. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
16. von Malzahns Bataljon
The battalion was purchased from Mecklenburg with an agreement of 23 April 1703. It was to consist of 5 companies each of 100 men. They marched to Bohemia and were employed in the area Passau-Schänding. In 1704 they were sent to Vienna in order to take part in the conflict against the Hungarian insurgents. On the night of 27 May 1704 the unit was attacked and completely shattered. The remainder were incorporated in the 4. Regiment.
The commander was Lieutenant Colonel Karl Gustav von Malzahn, who ended his Danish career as a Major General. He retired 27 September 1709 after having been the commander of the Fodgarden.
The battalions colors are described by G. Tessin: “Mecklenburgische Uniformen von 1718”, Zeitschrift für Heereskunde nr. 289, p.80-85, May-June 1980.
1701: light gray (uncolored wool) with blue lining and cuffs, cloak the same. Leather breeches and blue stockings.
1702: exchanged leather breeches for cloth breeches for those troops in Dutch service. At the same time blue kamisols were introduced. Brass buttons on the coat and kamisol. Buttons on the “Mänteln” and cassock with covered with material. Non-commissioned officers had as distinctions a silver button on the hat and silver edging of varying width depending on the rank. Tessin assumes that there were no grenadiers in von Malzahn’s battalion.
Grenadier caps for that part of the regiment which was in Dutch service ( this information does not directly affect the troops in Danish service) was after the Dutch style. For the common grenadier the cap had Lieutenant General v. Schwerin’s name on the shield and in the middle the arms of the Duke of Mecklenberg. Grenadier caps for the officers and non-commissioned officers had only the Ducal arms (1702). This information is taken into consideration to illustrate something common for the time, namely a difference in the cap decoration between the common grenadier and officers and non-commissioned officers, not only in cost but also in appearance.
The regimental colors are mentioned in the Capitulation of 22 October 1701. Both coat and cassock of white-gray cloth provided with blue lining of baize. In addition breeches are mentioned but no color is given, hat, shoes and stockings, shirts, neckcloths and a pair of leather gloves. Non-commissioned officers were armed with halberd and infantry sword, while the common soldier and pioneers had 14 “lødige” muskets, a short bayonet and infantry sword with iron hilt. A belt with two pockets for bayonet and sword. The regiment was supplied with 8 flags for 10 companies, which possibly indicates 2 grenadier companies despite the fact that neither these nor their equipment are mentioned in the capitulation.
|| From 29 November 1701 the two Würtemberg-Öels regiments could be uniformed in light gray and yellow. This information contradicts the original enlistment patent for the Würtemberg-Öels regiments, but is in agreement with contemporary eyewitness descriptions from Vrigny. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
18. Hansens Regiment
Generalstaben vol. II, p.38 mentions on 22 April 1710 a white-gray kamisol and surtout with red lining, together with red breeches and stockings. Hat with wool braid and cockade. Scheunchen mentions 1710 red cuffs with one blue stripe.
Whether the commander, Jakob Hansen, and his officers were typical of the time, yet fully accepted economic swindles, se “Museum” 1896 II,p.334-61.
19. Baartigs Regiment
Raised 11 March 1710 with two battalions, men never reached more than one battalion in strength.
Scheunchen mentions 1710 red cuffs and one blue stripe. According to Krigskollegiet’s incoming documents, the Capitulation of 7 September 1709 mentions for non-commissioned officers and men: “ surtout white-gray trimmed with wide notched lace, white-gray camisol, red breeches and stockings, hat with cockade and wool braid.”
20. von Callenbergs Bataljon
Recruited in Westphalia in 1711 and on 25 April 1713 incorporated in 4. Infanteriregiment.
21. von Kleppings Bataljon
The battalion was used to reinforce other existing regiments.
It was purchased fully equipped from the duke of Sachsen-Meiningen in 1712, but was recruited in Westphalia in 1711. The remainder was incorporated in the 4. Infanteriregiment on 25 April 1713.
Uniform: white coat and kamisol with red lining and facings. Red breeches and stockings. ( Letter from Klepping to Scholten 28 February 1712.)
The Postmaster's Spy Report from Malmø 1710
That cassocks/cloaks were not immediately discarded in 1707, or at least continued to exist in the regimental depots, can be seen in the so-called spy report, dated 10 December 1709. “Rapport fra Postmesteren in Malmø, Carsten Olofsson, til Överpostdirektören i Stockholm.” Collection Great Northern War, Riksarkivet in Stockholm. It is repeated in A. Stille: “ Kriget i Skåne 1709-1710”, Stockholm 1903, where he has only published the uniform details in the original. Stille has incorrectly read buttons (knapper), instead of collar (kraver).
Grenaderer: red “liberi” with blue cuffs and silver lace.
Fodgarden: “liberi” red coat and cloak with yellow cuffs and collar. (The uniform can be the old model - Christian 5’s newly introduced 1686 guard uniform with cassock described in “Chakoten” 1993/94, which Löwenskjold mentions, that the Guard at this exact moment ask to wear during the campaign. That the Guard should have changed to new red coats with yellow prior to 1712, appears to be very doubtful.
Dronningen: “liberi” as the Fodgarden.
It is noteworthy that the three regiments above are described with “liberi”, while the common regiments “only” wore coats (kjole).
Jyske: white coats with cloaks and red cuffs and collar.
Prins Christian: as above.
Fynske: white coats and cloaks with green cuffs and collar.
Hessen-Phillipsthal: white coats and cloak with burnt yellow cuffs and collar.
Marine: red coat and cloaks with lemon yellow cuffs and collar. ( That the Marineregiment already in 1710 was wearing a red uniform is not found in other places.)
The general impression from the report is that the regiments because of the winter campaign were supplied with cloaks, possibly the old cassocks which otherwise were discarded in 1707. Normally, a regiment had only cloaks for use by soldiers on guard duty, not for the entire regiment. The Swedish general Stenbock also comments on the lack of cloaks for the Danish, so it must have been regard as a normal part of winter equipment in 1710.
One can see in later Tøjhus Accounts that the old white and still usable uniforms were turned in when the change to red took place 1712-1714. For the same reasons one still preserved the cassocks from 1707 as long as they still could be used. There is no record of cassocks or cloaks in the Tøjhus Accounts.
The color descriptions from the “Postmesteren” (also for cavalry) are accurate - with the exception of the Guard and Marine - the information is completely reliable.
Nationalregimenter (Land Militia)
Strictly speaking, the regiments with their deplorable lack of training and equipment were only intended as fortress troops and “soldateske” (duty with the fleet during war as marine infantry).
Nevertheless, they eventually also did service on the same footing as the enlisted regiments, something that also occurred during the Skånske Krig, and they often did it as well as the enlisted regiments.
But service was downright unpopular, since the population had not forgotten how Christian 5’s promises to the national militia were disgracefully broken, and that several regiments later were sent to foreign service in return for money. All of the regiments wore light gray coats with cuffs in the regimental color. Kamisols were only issued when the unit departed for field service. These farmer soldiers received their training after church services in only their coats under which they wore their often colorful, homespun, farm jackets. This is probably the reason that the figures in the loft at Rosenborg and the drawings of Worgewitz 1728 show the Land Militia with the coats buttoned shut.
|| From 26 March 1705 it was recommended to procure sabers for the 774 grenadiers with the land militia, and let the resulting excess of swords be used by the Norwegian military. (Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
After the unlucky Battle of Helsingborg 1710 the shortage of manpower in the enlisted regiments was so severe that they had to be reinforced with the manpower which was otherwise intended for the National regiments. Personnel were ordered to muster with gray “vadmel”(coarse, woolen homespun) coats, jacket, leather breeches, shoes and stockings, so that one only had to sew on colored cuffs and the uniform was in order.
|| From 12 April 1712 the Landregimenterne (Land Militia) retain their gray cloth breeches and stockings in the same color as earlier. Only when new uniforms are procured shall breeches and stockings be in the color specified in the last uniform regulation.(Nordentofts Archiv, Kastellet.)
Land Militia 1701-12
Tessin Vaupel Regiment Color Note 1701/15 698 Østsjællandske wine red 1701/16 699 Vestsjællandske orange 1701/17 699 Fynske zinober 1. 1701/18 700 Ålborgske light brown 1701/19 700 Århusiske blue 1701/20 701 Riberske light green 1701/21 701 Viborgske yellow 1704/3 701 Oldenborgske red(brown?) brown
Note 1. Fynske Nationalregiment
Vrigny mentions (p.353) from a muster on 19 June 1702, “that the regiment was clothed in iron gray with red lining. The hats were edged with red and had red cockades. Stockings had red stripes on the sides and back. The looked handsome, There was only one flag per battalion.”
This is the only really good portrayal of Danish infantry from the period 1700-1712, and the figures each measure a good 2 meters in height. At the same time it is one of Europe’s very few accurate representations of contemporary uniforms.
This part of the loft decoration at Rosenborg was created to remember the establishment of the Land Militia 1702-1704. Originally, it was supposed to be a painting of the same design by le Coffre which was paid for in 1706, but this was changed instead to a stucco loft. The greatest part was created by Frans Biener from 1706, while the five rearmost figures were completed by a Leonhard Schwabe.
Unfortunately, it has not been possible to find a proper photographic representation which does just to the many fine details. Likewise, an accurate drawing of the complete frieze has never been done. As a result, interested parties must go the castle itself to study the decoration more closely.
Leading there is an officer (Captain) with pike, and one notices the his feathers on the hat, cockade, and button division (1:2:3) and the manner in which the sash is wrapped around the waist. According to Rosenborg officials, at the last restoration one saw that under the coat of the officer was a gorget with the double monogram F4.
Behind him there is an officer with flag (ensign) and behind him one can see the head of an non-commissioned officer armed with a halberd. The men appear to be formed in 4 ranks. All have buttoned coats, which was common for the land militia, since they were not issued kamisols and instead worn homespun, farm jackets. The muskets all have loose hanging slings, which they should be at this time, and sword bets are without buckles. All have a large cockade.
In the third rank one sees as the third figure a drummer. The placement here is done more for practical artistic reasons, since he otherwise should stand on the flank of the first rank. His only coat decoration seems to be a collar. The last figure is an officer, apparently with a pike. Photo: Rosenborg.
Infantry Color Plate
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