Danish Infantry 1675-79

Introduction

The T-numbers next to the regimental name are Tessin numbers after Georg Tessin's, Die Regimenter der Europäischen Staaten im Ancien Regime des XVI bis XVIII Jahrhunderts. Biblio Verlag. Osnabrück 1986. As not all units are mentioned by Tessin, some units have been given new numbers after the Tessin system. The V-numbers refers to the page where the single unit is described in O. Vaupel: Den Danske Hærs Historie til Nutiden og Den Norske Hærs Historie indtil 1814. København 1872.

The regimental names are given in modern Danish version, as translation would be almost impossible. Mostly, the regimental names of the time were written in an often highly original German version and often too, the units are known under several names, sometimes the same name belonging to different units at different times. Next the names of the regimental commanders are provided. Regiments very often are referred to by the commander's name. Here again there is some difficulty, as battalions often were separated from their regiment and then the units were named after the battalion commander.

Regimental Organization

As of January 1676 infantry regiments of 12 companies were reduced to 8 companies each of 107 men and 4 garrison companies each of 100 men. The infantry regiment, including staff, had a strength of 1,265. In the field the normal tactical unit was the battalion, normally of 4 companies.

A regiment of 8 companies had a staff consisting of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant colonel, 1 major (these three officers were also called senior officers and each normally had a company, a sort of financial reward). In addition there were staff personnel consisting of a regimental quartermaster (normally an officer), an adjutant (normally a noncommissioned officer), a judge advocate, a field priest, a provost with two assistants (the military police), a wagon master with assistants and horse drivers, a regimental clerk, 1 military "doctor" with assistants, normally one per company. These were not military doctors in today's sense, but came from the guild of barbers. Their trade in wounds and amputations they learned on the battlefield, as there were no schools for surgery. A doctor at that time we would call an apothecary today.

A company at full strength had a Captain (when the company belonged to the colonel or lieutenant colonel, daily, routine duties were supervised by a lieutenant-captain), 2 Lieutenants, an Ensign (fähnrich) who was a kind of officer cadet, 3 Sergeants, Führer, 1 Captain des armes (the weapons and ammunition sergeant), 1 Fourer (also a bodyguard to the captain), 3 Corporals and 23 Lance corporals, 2 drummers and 1 Fifer, and 113-122 privates. Actual numbers varied throughout the period, and was generally lower, for example a Captain, a Lieutenant, an Ensign, 6 Noncommissioned Officers, a Clerk (mønsterskriver), 3 Corporals, 3 Musicians, together with 10 Lance Corporals and 74 Men.

Grenadiers were first introduced in France in 1667, and other armies soon followed suit. On 31 January 1676, prior to the landing at Råå at the beginning of the Scanian Campaign, it was ordered that all infantry companies should be organized with 4 files of pikemen (24), 10 files of musketeers (60) and 1 file of 4 grenadiers and 2 carpenters (pioneers). Eventually the carpenters were transferred to a special pioneer company in the Spring of 1677, and the number of grenadiers was raised to 6. Grenadiers were paid the same as Lance Corporals (gefreiters)

Battalion Artillery. Each infantry battalion was given two 3-pounders as fire support, rather effective against infantry, as the musket and fusil fire was not effective over a distance of more than a hundred meters or so. One gun was normally handled by 1 artilleryman, if any, assisted by 4-5 privates of the battalion and possibly the sappers who were introduced in 1676. The guns were painted red with yellow iron fittings. 3 horses were assigned to each 3-pounder.

Weapons

Officers carried half pikes, straight infantry swords and pistols. A cuirass was only worn at sieges.

The noncommissioned officers carried halberds, infantry swords and perhaps pistols.

The men were separated into musketeers and pikemen. In the beginning 1/3 were pikemen and 2/3 were musketeers, later the number of musketeers increased at the expense of pikemen (as it was easier to train a musketeer than a pikeman, and they were more useful).

In 1675 musketeers were uniformly equipped with matchlocks, but following the Battle of Lund in December 1676 flintlocks began to be introduced. The main problem with matchlocks was the glowing fuse which was difficult to handle in all weather conditions. In an attempt to solve this problem muskets with a doublelock (match and wheelock and match and flintlock) were introduced, but the matchlock continued to be the dominant infantry firearm throughout the war. Normally 12 or more charges were carried hanging from a bandolier. Flintlocks were gradually introduced and the cartridge bandolier was replaced by a cartridge box. Musketeers were also armed with a straight infantry sword. Initially, musketeers in a few units, for example Plöns Regiment, were also armed with so-called svinefjer (Schwein Feder)or swine feather (a heavy, short spear used for hunting wild boars). This was useful in close combat and trench warfare, and which could also be used in the construction of "Spanish Riders" or chevaux de frise. In October 1678 Christian 5 decreed that pikes should be abandoned, and instead infantry should be armed with muskets and svinefjer. The extent to which this was implemented before the end of the war is unknown.

Pikemen were armed with pikes, which were about 16 feet (4.52 meters) in length and made of ash. The pike heads could be in various shapes and were made of steel. In addition pikemen were armed with straight infantry swords.

Grenadiers when they were introduced in late 1676 and early 1677; although, a special grenadier unit was set up by a Captain Ziegler at the siege of Wismar in 1675. Grenadiers were armed with flintlocks (fusils) and three grenades which were carried in a special leather box or canvas bag. Grenade launchers were tested beginning in 1676 and in 1677 began to be distributed.

Uniform Generalities

The uniform information provided here is a compilation based on various sources in the archives, and an analysis of the paintings by Möinichen and the Rosenborg Tapestries. The bulk of the work comes from the very profound studies in Rigsarkivet (The National Archives) by Olaf Hasselager who has spent the last 30 years in this study.

Headgear: Usually a hat whose brim could be turned up in different shapes. Normally black in color, but other colors like gray also were used. The hat band and/or trim on the brim was usually in the regimental facing color, but other colors such as white and yellow could be used. Another item that often appears on the hat in the Möinichen paintings and rosenborg Tapestries is a brass C5 and crown. It is usually shown holding one side of the brim up; however, these were not introduced until after the war. Caps wese also worn, although it was not as usual as the hat. One type was called a spidshue which was similar in appearance to a nightcap with tassel. Another type was called a kabuds. It was a round cap with flaps that could be turned down to protect the ears, neck and eyes. Normally the cap was in one color and lined in another. The latter color would show when the flaps were turned up.

Neckcloth: Neckcloths could be white, black or in the regimental facing color. White predominated, and black was probably reserved as a noncommissioned officer distinction.

Coat: Appeared in a variety of colors depending on the regiment. The lining was in the regimental color as were the cuffs, which were large, often measuring over 20cm. Both coat and facing colors are given under each unit. The coat normally reached to just above the knees, but this varied depending on the height of the man. The coats were seldom sown according to individual measurements, but were delivered to the unit in two or three standard sizes. The coat appears to have had two openings in the back.

Buttons: Brass or pewter. Normally three dozen (36) buttons on each coat; although, four and five dozen (48-60) also occur. The exact placement of buttons on the coat cannot be stated exactly, but for 36 buttons one could figure that 12-18 buttons were used on the front of the coat in a single row, 3 buttons on each pocket, 2-3 buttons on each cuff and 6-12 buttons on the back coat slits. For the larger number of buttons, in all probability, more would appear on the pockets, coat front and back openings. The number on the cuffs remained at 2-3 buttons.

Breeches: Yellowish/buff leather lined with linen. Cloth breeches also were used, especially towards the end of the war, and these were in the same color as the coat.

Stockings: Normally in the regimental facing color, white or gray.

Belts, Cartridge and Grenade Boxes, Scabbards and Powder Horns: Belts and bandoliers were yellowish/buff leather. If a cartridge bandolier was worn, the powder containers were wood wrapped in braid and a shot bag would have been worn. Cartridge and grenade boxes were black leather, and in some cases may have had a C5 and crown in brass on the flap. Scabbards were natural leather or black, and the sword had an iron hilt. The sword could either be carried on a waist belt or a shoulder belt. Powder horns were made of wood with iron fittings.

Shoes: Normally black leather with brass or pewter buckles, but shoes could also be in natural leather color.

Drummers and Flutists (Fifers): Wore the same uniform as the other ranks. There was no tradition in Denmark of drummers wearing "reverse colors". The coats, however, were often richly provided with lace along the coat seams, pockets, front edge of the coat and as stripes on the sleeves. This lace was either yellow, white or in the regimental facing color. The amount and type of lace often depended on the personal wealth of the colonel. Drums were wooden and painted; although the colors are unknown. They probably bore the arms of the province, the colonel or the Royal monogram and crown.

Grenadiers: Appear to have been uniformed differently from the rest of the regiment, at least initially, usually in gray coats faced red or blue. They seem to have worn the normal hat, but they could also have worn a special cap, possibly in the form of a spidshue, which was like a nightcap with a tassel. Caps of this type are known to have been worn by the Kongens Livregiment and Dronningens Livregiment. Because of their "elite"status, they may have had shoulder ribbons, aprils.

Lance Corporals: Wore the same uniform as the other ranks. The only special distinction that is known is the use of shoulder ribbons called aprils in some regiments. These could be in yellow or in the regimental facing color.

Noncommissioned Officers: These were responsible for providing (paying for) their own uniform. In principle they wore the same uniform as the other ranks; however, it often occurs in sources that they were uniformed in "reverse colors". The rank distinction appears to have been shoulder ribbons , aprils, in yellow or the regimental facing color, together with buttons of yellow fabric or covered with yellow fabric, such as silk. Possibly brass buttons appeared in certain regiments.

Officers: Officers' hat bands and trim were in the same color as the coat lace, and the hats themselves were not necessarily in the same color as those of the men. Officers' coats were normally in the same colors as those of the men, but there was even a greater possibility for variations than for the noncommissioned officers because officers uniformed themselves after their own discretion and that of their tailor. As a result, officers' coats could be in "reverse colors" or in coats in which the coat, lining and cuffs were in a single color. A common distinction for officers was lace trim along the seams and edges of the coat, in single or double width, in silver or gold embroidery or silver or gold ribbon, or in white or yellow silk. Buttons were often silver-plated or gilded. . Another officer distinction was the gorget, probably gilded with the C5 monogram and crown. Sashes were not normal wear for officers; however, they may have been worn in some regiments. From 1668 there are two examples: Kongens Livregiment had sashes of white taffeta with mixed gold and silver fringes, and Feltherrens Regiment had blue sashes with mixed gold and silver fringes.

Colours

The subject of infantry colours will be taken up in greater detail later, as the subject is large and complex, and will require a large number of drawings to make it understandable (anyone wishing to volunteer, please contact me). Descriptions alone do not suffice. A number of infantry colours are provided here, but without explanation. Some are taken from the book, Dannebrog, by Helge Bruhn, while others are computer drawn reconstructions. They are the best that can be provided at this time.


The Regiments

 

Kongens Livregiment (T1658/9 (V.600)).
1658 Kongens Livrergiment, 1684 Garde zu Fuss.
1.7.1672 Niels Rosenkrantz, 4.7.1676 Siegfried Bibow, 27.6.1677 Renard Keller, 15.1.1678 Jobst Scholten, 25.6.1679 Georg Wallis,
Uniform: December 1669 red coat with yellow cuffs and lining. NCOs had 48 buttons covered with red-yellow silk. NCOs and Gefreitere (Lance Corporals) had "aprils", colored ribbons on the shoulders. Gefreitere and guardsmen had 48 pewter buttons. Uniform for officers above the rank of lieutenant was in red velvet with yellow lining. 1671 the making of uniforms for two lieutenants is mentioned with two rows of gold and silver lace with a width of about a finger on the breast. Quartermaster and corporals also red coats with yellow and gold-silver lace, but only with the width of a little finger. April 1676 the number of pewter buttons are reduced to 36. Stockings were red. Black hat with red lace. In May black cartridge boxes and special black grenade boxes which held 3 grenades were delivered along with 25 red grenadier caps with yellow lining. The uniforms of the grenadiers were not the regimental. They received gray coats with red lining. The company sappers and artillery drivers for the regimental guns, which were raised at the same time also received gray coats faced red. The drivers wore a yellow crown on the right sleeve to show that they were a part of the artillery. Reinforcements arriving in December were given a red coat with yellow lining, a gray overcoat, a black hat with red lace, leather breeches and red stockings. July 1677 brass buttons stamped with C5, black lace for the hats, red velvet ribbons and red stockings. Blue shirts. 1678 the cartridge boxes were in red leather with a yellow cloth lid cover on which in brass (other sources say that it was painted in red) a crowned C5, while the grenade boxes were black. Neckties yellow. Red stockings, but also white and yellow ones are mentioned. (The yellow ones are an emergency measure for the guardsmen in Christianstad under Krüger.) 1678 November white stockings. Drummers red with yellow lining and possibly rich lacings in gold-silver or yellow. The drums were wood and painted. Officers wore gilded gorgets and a white sash with mixed silver/gold fringes. Buttons were silver.

Dronningens Livregiment (T1659/3 (V.666)).
24.5.1658 Eiler Holck, 2.9.1675 Joachim Schack, 27.6.1677 Hans Georg Schulenburg.
Dronningens Livregiment had been an infantry regiment since 1659. Originally it was raised 1644 as a dragoon regiment under the name Ulrich Gyldenløves Dragoner and so continued to carry their old dragoon colors up to 1674.
Uniform: December 1669 red coat faced yellow. On the front 36 and on the back 12 pewter buttons NCOs had silk covered buttons, possibly yellow.. NCOs and Gefreitere had yellow "aprils". In May 1676 25 red grenadier caps with yellow lining were delivered, even if the number of regimental grenadiers should be 32. Their uniform was gray coats with blue lining. Sappers (16) and artillery drivers (16) had gray coats faced red. On the right arm the artillery drivers was a yellow crown. 1676 black grenade boxes in leather. In addition the grenadiers were equipped with bayonets and hand axes. 1676 it was ordered that the coat should have 36 pewter buttons. November 1677 this was changed to brass buttons with a crowned CA stamped on them. These were delivered in April 1678. All five of the royal regiments were to have similar buttons, stamped with the initials of their royal commander. 1677 black hats delivered together with red coats with yellow lining and cuffs. Brass buttons. Red stockings and gray overcoats (piekjoler) were delivered. 1678 yellow shoulder belts, cartridgebox in red leather, black grenade boxes for the grenadiers. In April the regiment receive gray hats trimmed with yellow, and in May more gray hats with yellow edging. September 1679 the regiment delivered 576 "red soldier caps with yellow lining" to Tøjhuset (The Armory in Copenhagen), these caps can be interim caps, so-called kabudser. The appearance is guesswork, but something similar to a Swedish karpus - a cap with flaps that could be turned down to protect the neck, ears and face.

Feltherrens Geworbne Regiment (T1658/8 (V.637)).
from 1676 Prins Jørgens (Georgs)Geworbne Regiment
5.2.1658 Hans Schack, 2.3.1676 Didrik Busk (killed in the attack on Malmø 26.6.1676), 27.6.1676 Aanton Gynter Pottendorf, 1678 Hartvig Asche Schack,
Uniform: 1670 blue coat with yellow lining and cuffs. 48 pewter buttons. Possibly silk covered buttons for NCOs and Gefreiters. Gefreiters had "aprils". April 1676 the numbers of buttons was reduced to 36 and were made of brass, blue hat bands were received. In May regimental grenadiers were introduced, who were uniformed in gray coats faced blue and with black grenade boxes and doublelock muskets. The sappers and artillery drivers were in gray faced red, the drivers had a yellow crown on the right sleeve. In the first half of 1677 the coat color is changed to blue with orange lining and pewter buttons. In the Autumn the hat bands are changed to yellow or blue. 1678 (January) gray hats with red and blue bands, black cartridge boxes. White stockings. Part of the regiment still seems still to have brass buttons, but only pewter buttons were delivered in the future. Hats with yellow bands. 1679 white stockings.



Feltmarskalløjtnantens Regiment (T 1657/24)
from 1676 Prins Frederiks Regiment
1.10.1673 Adam Weyher, 3.10.1676 Thomas Meldrum, (The regiment was known as "The Black Regiment" after its black colours.)
Uniform: December 1670 blue coat white lining and cuffs. Pewter buttons. Otherwise uniformed like Feltherrens Regiment. April 1675 black hat and 60 brass buttons on the coat. May 1676 grenadiers were uniformed gray coats faced blue. Sappers and artillery drivers in gray faced red, and gray overcoats (pierocks). December 1676 the color of the lining is changed to red and in June blue coats with red were delivered. Red stockings. Black hats with red lace. Brass buttons stamped with a crowned F. May 1677 leather breaches. January 1678 blue breeches. Black cartridge and grenade boxes. Gray hats with red lace. Blue stockings, pewter buttons, red necktie, brass buttons, gray overcoat, white stockings. 1679 pewter buttons. 1679 blue stockings.



Maximilian Rosenkrantz Regiment (T1657/32 (V.627)
from 1676 Prins Christians Regiment
1.11.1671 Fredrik Vilhelm Warnstädt, 2.4.1672 Maximillian Rosenkrantz (killed at Halmstad 16.8.76), (11.12.1676 Prince Christian), 27.6.1676 Johan Anton Elnberger and Kristoffer Bjelke,
Uniform: June 1672 yellow coat faced red. May 1676 the coat is changed to blue with yellow lining. Pewter buttons. Grenadiers gray coat faced blue, sappers and artillery drivers in gray faced red. Black grenade boxes. September 1676 36 pewter buttons for a coat and "Icelandic", knitted in Island, stockings, probably white. April 1677 both leather and blue cloth breeches were in use together with the blue coats. Breeches were often in the color of the coats. White stockings. April 1677 200 red coats were delivered to the regiment possibly for the men of Neubauers battalion (from Bremers Regiment), who were to be amalgamated into Regiment Prins Christian, but still wore their old uniforms. Lid cover for 14 cartridge boxes of blue linen. February 1678 black grenade boxes. March: "pijkjoler" (overcoat), blue breeches and gray hats. April: gray hats with yellow lace. Yellow stockings. May: leather breeches. November: white stockings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Sjællandske Nationale Regiment or Sjællandske Nationale Regiment af 1. udskrivning (T1627/19 (V.620)) from 1.11.1679 Sjællandske Geworbene Regiment.
30.3.1666 Niels Rosenkranz (killed at Helsingborg 3.7.1676), 16.3.1672 Carl von Osten, 1676 Jean de la Haye (killed in sortie from Landskrona 30.7.1676), 30.6.1676 Kristian Lange (wounded at Landskrona 14.7.16779, 27.6.1677 Balthazar Knoblauch, 1.11.1679 Julius Ernst Tettau.
Uniform: 1675 red coat with yellow lining and cuffs. 36 pewter buttons. In May grenadiers are uniformed in gray coats faced blue, sappers and artillery drivers wore gray coats faced red. July 1677 "pijkjoler" (overcoat). The men of the company belonging to captain Spormann wore red coats with blue lining, as the company was detached as a frikompagni (independent company) and sent to Korsør as garrison. In the second half of 1677 the lining changed from blue to yellow. October 1678 the uniform for the battalions of Knoblauch and Teutmann are changed to light gray faced blue. 48 pewter buttons for Knoblauch and 60 for Teutmann. The battalion of Vittinghof remained in red coats faced blue and with 48 pewter buttons. 1679 leather breeches and possibly white stockings.

2. Sjællandske Nationale Regiment or Sjællandske Nationale Regiment af 2. udskrivning (T1675/15 (V.694 and 622))
1.7.1675 Martin Bertelsen (Barthold Märtens), 7.2.1677 Duke of Croi, 27.6.1677 Andreas Fuchs, (1677 Jacob Stuart?).
After the battle of Landskrona 1677 strengthened with the remainder of Regiment Stuart (T1676/9). After the capture of Rügen amalgamated October 1678 with the Regiment Knoblauch (T1629/19) under the name Sjællandske Nationale Infanteriregiment.
Uniform: Autumn 1675 red coat with yellow lining. Pewter buttons. May 1676 grenadiers gray coats faced blue. Sappers and artillery drivers gray faced red. Autumn 1677 the coat were changed to red with blue lining and blue breeches. Pewter buttons. 1678 red coats with blue lining and cuffs. Gray hats without edging. White stockings. Yellow leather breeches. 1678 Battalion Viettinghoff in Wismar: 48 pewter buttons, blue breeches and possibly white stockings.

1. Fynske Nationale Regiment or Fyenske Nationale Regiment af 1. udskrivning (T1661/1 (V.615))
1.12.1671 Johan Kasper Cicignon, 11.12.1676 Hans Schack, 1677 Andreas Fuchs, 1.11.1679 Edmund Esche.
Raised 1661 as Fynske Nationale Regiment. 15.6.1675 split into the 1st. (T1661/1) and the 2nd. (1675/16) Fynske Nationale Regimenter. 11.12.1676 the regiments are amalgamated again under the name of Fynske Regiment (T1661/1).
Uniform: 1675 green coat faced yellow. Pewter buttons. May 1676 Grenadiers, sappers and artillery drivers like Feltmarskalløjtnantens Regiment. Black grenade boxes. 1676 gray coat faced green?

2. Fynske Nationale Infanteriregiment or Fynske Nationale Infanteriregiment af 2. udskrivning (T1675/16 (V.694 and 616)) 10.8.1675 Siegfred Bibow, 31.6.1676 Hans Schack.
Amalgamated 24.12.1676 with the 1. Fynske Nationale Regiment, after the former was ruined in the Battle of Halmstad. Then called Nye Fynske Nationale Regiment
Uniform: 1675 green coat with yellow lining. Pewter buttons.
May 1676 grenadiers gray coats with blue lining, sappers and artillery drivers gray coats with red lining. Autumn 1677 light gray coats faced green.

 

 

 

1. Jyske Nationale Regiment or Sydjydske Nationale Regiment (T1632 (V.689 and 648))
1674 Karl Arenstorff, 20.5.1675 Kristof Otto.Schack, 25.5.1675 Hans Georg Schulenburg, 27.5.1677 Harvig Levetzau.
1670 called 1. Nordjyske Nationale Regiment - from 1675 1. Sydjyske Nationale Regiment. 1.11.1679 amalgamated into the Regiment Prins Kristian (T1657/32).
Uniform: 1675 blue coat faced red. Pewter buttons. September 1676 blue coat faced yellow. Pewter buttons. 1677 light gray faced blue?

2. Jyske Nationale Regiment or Nordjydske Nationale Infanteriregiment (T1658/10 (V.650 and 689))
1666 J. Schack, 1675 Prins Georg, 1676 H. Walter, 1677 J. Voigt.
26.6.1677 one battalion amalgamated into the regiment Prins Frederik (T.1657/24). 1.11.1679 the remaining men, called the Battalion Voigt, were amalgamated into the regiment Prins Christian (T1657/32).
Uniform: 1675 blue coat with red lining. Pewter buttons. September 1676 the color of the lining changed to yellow. Pewter buttons.

3. Jyske Nationale Regiment or Sydjyske Nationale Regiment af 2. udskrivning (T 1675/17 (V.651 and 694))
1675 Bartold Bülow
1.11.1679 amalgamated into Sydjyske Nationale Regiment af 2. udskrivning. One company under Bülow remains independent until 5.2.1685, when it is amalgamated into Kongens Livregiment.
Uniform: 1675 blue coat faced red. Spring 1677 blue coat faced yellow.
1679 blue breeches. Drummer: blue coat faced red and blue breeches

4. Jyske Nationale Regiment or Nordjyske Nationale Regiment af 2. udskrivning (T1675/18 (V.648)) from 1676 called Sydjydske Nationale Regiment.
20.8.1675 Egedius Kristof Lützow, 4.1.1679 Hans Steensen.
Uniform: August-December 1675 red coat with blue lining. 48 pewter buttons. The buttonholes sewn with white and blue thread and "remmer (to strenghten the buttonholes or to color them?). May 1676 grenadiers, sappers and artillery drivers like Feltmarskalløjtnantens Regiment.
1677 change to gray coat faced yellow and 48 pewter buttons. One battalion (Puttkammer) received 72 pewter buttons.
1678 cartridge boxes made of seal skin are mentioned
1679 one battalion is mentioned clad in red coats faced yellow, blue breeches and white stockings

 

 

Slesvigske Nationale Infanteriregiment (T1664/1 (V.691) raised 1661?)
1664 Wittemacke, 20.8.1675 Duke Bernhard of Plöen, 20.1.1676 Johan Adolf of Plöen. 25.11.1676 Konrad Brinck . Disbanded 1677
Originally called Slesvig-Holstenske Nationale Infanteriregiment. June 1675 doubled and then split into two. The companies of Slesvig formed into one regiment called Plöen after its commander, the Duke of Plöen. The companies of Holsten formed a new regiment called Holstenske Nationale Regiment (1675/21).
Uniform: 1667 according to Vaupel - gray coats faced yellow. 1676 gray faced red. 1670 The companies of Slesvig perhaps wore blue coats with red lining, but a source 1674 gives the companies gray coats with unknown lining. The companies of Holstein had red coats with blue lining. May 1675. The "new" regiment of Plöen got red coats with blue lining and 60 pewter buttons. White hats? Grenadiers, sappers and artillery drivers had gray coats with red lining as Kongens Livregiment. 1677 light gray coat faced red. Leather breeches. Some companies in May 1676 - two raised by von Blakenstein - perhaps had gray coat faced blue. Leather breeches, blue stockings, black hat with blue edging.


Bremers Geworbne Regiment (T1674/1 (V.690))
1656 Johan Otto Bremer
Raised 1674 around the former Frikompagni Bremer. 1674 it reached the strength of a battalion. 1675 it had the strength of a full regiment with 12 companies. The battalion of Kardorff (4 companies) was destroyed at Halmstad 16.8.1676.
11.12.1676 the battalion of Neubaur (four companies) was amalgamated into the regiment Prins Kristian (T1657/32). With the army reductions of 1 October 1679 Bremer was allowed to retain one company as frikompagni from the 3rd battalion, while the other three companies were amalgamated into Dronningens Livregiment (T.1659/3). In 1684 Frikompagni Bremer was also amalgamated into Dronningens Livregiment.
Uniform: March-October 1675 red coat faced yellow. 48 brass buttons for some companies, others got 60 buttons of pewter. 1676 the four oldest companies received 48 brass buttons for each coat coat. Late 1676 changed to red coats with blue lining. 1676 gray coat faced red. 20.10.1677 Bremers Regiment received red cloth for 174 men, yellow cloth for "underkiol" (small clothes) and 522 dozen brass buttons. Perhaps the battalions were uniformed differently.

Degenfeldts Geworbne Regiment (T1674/2 (V.695))
20.4.1675 Hannibal Baron von Degenfeld, 25.7.1676 Duke of Croi.
Following the Battle of Lund 1676 the survivors were amalgamated into Kongens Livregiment (T1658/9).
Uniform: February 1675 red coat with blue lining and 60 buttons. NCOs blue coats with red lining and red breeches. Privates had blue breeches and stockings. 1676 36 pewter buttons for the coat. May 1676 grenadiers gray coats with blue lining, sappers and artillery drivers gray coats with red lining. (as T.1657/24). In April/May 1676 the "turning" of the old coats is mentioned, meaning that the coat was reversed to blue with red lining.

Lüthkens Geworbne Regiment (T1675/13 (V.691))
1675 Detlef Lüthken, (Christian Juul - battalion commander in Christianstad)
From April 1675 raised around the Frikompagni Lüthken. In July 1675 six companies from the former Holstein-Gottorp forces were amalgamated into the regiment. In 1676 the men of the so-called Hollandske Eskadron (The Dutch Squadron - a small mercenary force raised in Holland) was amalgamated into the regiment. After the battle of Lund 1676 the remainder of the regiment were amalgamated into Dronningens Livregiment (T1658/3).
Uniform: July 1675 the six companies from Holstein-Gottorp had red coats. Lining unknown. The men of Regiment Lüthken when formed had sky blue coats faced red and 60 pewter buttons. The men from the Hollandske Eskadron seem to have arrived from Holland in gray coats with black lining. December 1677 the Battalion Juul received cloth for red coats with yellow lining. The uniform for the whole regiment should in reality have been light gray with red lining, but this was never achieved before it was disbanded.

Detachment of von Keller
Keller (Renard?)
Raised 1671 from Maximillian Rosenkrantz Regiment (about 150 men) and different independent companies. The men of the independent companies kept their old coats, but all received yellow lining. The men of the regiment Maximillian Rosenkrantz seem to have kept their old regimental uniform.
Summer 1675 the men of the detachment were amalgamated into Baudissins Geworbne Infanteriregiment.

Baudissins Geworbne Infanteriregiment (T1675/14 (V.695))
June1675 Gustaf Adolf von Baudissin, June 1677 Renard Keller.
Raised 1675 in the Grevskaberne (the German counties of Oldenborg and Gottorp?) based on Kellers Detachment, five independent companies of Oldenborg and further enlisted men. The battalion of Haxthausen (later named Krüger) encircled (trapped) at the siege of Christianstad. The rest of the regiment after the expedition to Rügen 1678 was amalgamated into Fynske and/or Kongens Livregiment.
Uniform: Autumn 1675 red coats with blue or yellow lining. December 1676 the Battalion Haxthausen in Christianstad received red coat faced yellow. Spring 1677 the Life company and 3 companies are clad in light gray coats with blue lining. The rest of the regiment is still being raised and not yet uniformed. Late 1677 the battalion in Christianstad still in red coats with yellow lining. (Vaupel gives light gray with red 1676?)

Harloffs Geworbne Regiment (T1675/20 (V.694))
12.8.1675 Henrik Harloff, 27.7.1676 Jakob Vilhelm Stuart.
Amalgamated 24.12.1676 into the Regiment Prins Georg (T1658/8).
Uniform: August-September 1675 red coat with blue lining. 60 pewter buttons. White hat.
May 1676 grenadiers in gray faced blue, sappers and artillery drivers gray faced red. (As T1657/24)

Holstenske Nationale Regiment (T1675/21 (V.692))
15.8.1675 Johan Witmacke, 15.2.1676 Johan Voigt, 20.9.1676 Hartvig Otto von Deden, 1679 Jobst Scholten.
Spring 1676 between three and five companies were enlisted with Frikompagni Behrend as the basis. April 1677 six companies were transferred to Kongens Livregiment (T1658/9) and six new companies were raised. One battalion was destroyed at Halmstad 1676.
Uniform: 1675 red with blue lining. Spring 1676 60 buttons are mentioned. The enlisted companies, among those the Frikompagni Voigt, blue coats faced yellow, four companies in red coat faced blue and four companies under Cudo Behrends in red coats faced yellow. Spring 1677 the uniforms were still a mixed bag caused by the heavy losses at Halmstad and Lund combined with the ongoing recruiting. The regiment ought to have been uniformed in blue with yellow lining, but in the Autumn only Dedens (the Life company) is so uniformed, the newly raised companies should have had light gray coats faced blue, and black hats. In one capitulation red faced yellow is mentioned. 6.3.1677 the capitulation says gray coats faced blue, but nothing was yet decided. May 1679 gray coat faced blue.

Schönfeldts Geworbne Regiment (T1675/22 (V.694))
1675 Gregor Alard Schönfeld
4.12.1676 the regiment was amalgamated into Prins Georg (T1657/8).
Uniform: 1675 Blue coat faced red according to the capitulation.
1676 Blue coat faced red. Pewter buttons.

Oldenburgske Nationale Regiment (T1675/19 (V.692))
from 1679 named Oldenborgske Landregiment
20.7-1675 Anton Gynter Ellebracht, 11.12.1676 Johan Voigt, 19.1.1677 Ditlev Lütken, 14.10.1678 Anton Gynter Pott.
Uniform: 1675 red coat with blue lining. (The source for this information is secondhand and hardly probable, as the regiment was not uniformed 1675.) 13.6.1677 700 red coats with blue lining are delivered to Tøjhuset for Oldenborgske Nationale Regiment.

Den Hollandske Eskadron (T1675)
This unit (The Dutch Squadron) was raised in Holland by the Danish Ambassador Klingenberg. It was meant to become a regiment, but never reached that far, instead being broken up at the start of 1676 and the men put into the regiments of Lüthken and Baudissin. The military term of squadron was in this period used for both cavalry, infantry and naval units.
Uniform: 1675 Gray coat with black lining. Black and white shoulder "bulbs" or "pads" ( like those of the Dutch infantry/artillery in 1815?) The men arrived in Oldenborg not yet properly clad, coats yes, but no shirts for instance.

Gullandske Bataillon (T1676/5 (V.696))
Also known as Gotlandske or Visbyske Bataillon
1676 Martin Bertelsen (Barthold).
Raised in the beginning of June 1676 among the line infantry detachments serving on the Danish warships. The men belonged to the regiments Kongens Livregiment (T1659/3), Dronningens Livregiment (T1658/7), Prins Georg (T1629/19) and 2. Sjællandske (1675/15). The battalion was disbanded September 1679, when the Danes left Gotland.
Uniform: 1676 red coats with yellow lining. August 1677 gray breeches. October privates and Gefreiters red coat faced green, while most of the NCOs had brown coats faced black, some brown coats faced gray. 1679 gray breeches.6.6.1676.

Gotlands three nationale kompagnier
Three locally raised companies, each with about 600 men, conscripted among the islands "tremænninger". Possibly no uniform.

Nimpfens Geworbne Regiment (T1676/7 (V.695))
Thilo Henrik Nimpfen
Raised 1676, but 1.3.1676 the 8 full companies together with 4 not yet full companies were amalgamated into Dronningens Livregiment (T1659/3).
(In Vaupel it says instead: Raised with 8 companies in Krempe from 20.6.1676. 14.11 four companies marched to Nyborg, shortly after followed the last four. 19.12.1676 the whole regiment reached Copenhagen. 1.3.1677 amalgamated into Dronningens Livregiment.)
Gray coats faced yellow and brass buttons. Gray cloaks. Black hats.

Schönbergs Geworbne Regiment (T1676/8 (V.694))
1676 Bartolomeus Veit Henrik Schönberg
Originally raised as new battalions for the regiment Duke of Plön (T1664/1), but 1.9.1677 amalgamated into regiment Prins Frederik (T1657/24).
1676 light gray coats with red lining. Brass buttons and black hats. Sashes for privates red with yellow. 1676 grenadiers gray with red.

Stuarts Geworbne Regiment (T1676/9 (V.694))
Jakob Vilhelm Stuart
Amalgamated 4.12.1677 into regiment Prins Frederik (T1657/24).
Uniform: According to the capitulation the coat should be light gray with red lining. Autumn 1677 the regiment is described as wearing gray coats with red lining and cuffs, a pair of good leather breeches, shoes and red stockings, a broad sword belt and a good sword (rapier is a little wrong, but still perhaps better), a "pijrock" to be used in rainy weather (raincoat) together with a rucksack of leather.

Ellnbergers Geworbne Regiment (T1676/)
Andreas Henrik Ellnberger
Partly raised from spring 1677, but it was decided to stop recruiting in the Autumn of 1677. Two companies amalgamated into Holstenske (T1675/21).
The uniforms should have been light gray coats with green lining. Black hat. Never uniformed.

Plöns Bataljon (T1677/2 (V.696))
also known as Plönnies Bataljon
Poul Henrik Plönnies.
4 companies raised in summer 1677. Amalgamated September 1677 into Regiment Prins Christian (T1657/32)
Uniform: According to capitulation of 1677 light gray coat with red lining. Black hat. In the Autumn still under recruiting and a pair of leather breeches have been issued to the men.

Lehnsdorffs Geworbne Regiment (T1677/1 (V.696))
8.6.1677 Lehndorff, 1678 Pflanz.
Raised in Brandenburg with 1,800 men in 12 companies. October 1677 on Rügen from there marched to Pomerania where it took part in the siege of Stettin loosing 2/3 of its strength. After the fall of Stettin it refilled its ranks in Brandenburg and then was sent to Scania (Skåne). Here it took part in the recapture of Helsingborg. 1679 sent to Holstein and
1.11.1679 amalgamated into Sjællandske (T1629/19)
Uniform: Blue coat with gray lining. 1678 514, probably red, so called "bådsmandshuer" (boatswain caps) with white crosses were delivered. Blue breeches.

Kalneyns Eskadron (1678/ (V.696))
Vulf Henrik Kalneyn
Raised with two companies in the summer 1678. 1679 amalgamated into Sjællandske Regiment (T1629/19).
Uniform: 1678 gray coat with blue lining. Blue breeches.

 

The Naval battalions at Lund 1676
In the battle of Lund about 1.500 sailors took part, fighting as infantry and destroyed almost to a man. The nice old military historian O.Vaupel in his "Den danske hærs historie" has made these poor fellows into Dutch sailors brought by admiral Tromp as reinforcements. This is incorrect, as Vaupel admits in a letter to Løvenskjold (Rigsarkivet). A few Dutchmen could have been a part (at the most a few hundred) of the battalions, but otherwise the battalions were made up primarily of Danish and some Norwegian sailors, while the navy lay in winter station.
The sailors were divided into 3 battalions, which in turn were divided into 24 so-called "crowds" and led by naval officers. They were armed with spiked maces, pistol and cutlasses, the weapons they were trained on in the navy. This was not a very proficient detachment for fighting a land battle, which is why they were placed in the second line of battle. When the Danes were routed by the Swedish cavalry, the sailors fought courageously, but with their poor weaponry they did not stand a chance during the effective and efficient Swedish pursuit which followed. The Swedes allowed the Dutch sailors who became prisoners to return home in the hopes of obtaining peace with Holland. Of the Danish and Norwegian sailors only some 60 ever returned home.

The battalions are known by the names Kongens Eskadre, Dronningens Eskadre and Prins Georgs Eskadre and in addition there was a further detachment of Norwegian sailors.
In order for the sailors to look like soldiers 1,186 red coats were sent to them in Scania.
Uniforms: Possibly 986 red coats faced blue and 200 red coats faced yellow. Stockings possibly white.

Frikompagnier (Independent Companies)
Independent companies were small units raised for special purposes, such as guarding strategic points or fortresses.

Frikompagni Detlef Lüthken
Raised 1661 as a independent company by Lieutenant Colonel Isenach together with the Independent Company of Johan Otto von Brehmer from Brehmers Geworbne Infanteriregiment (T1658/7) which was reduced at the time of the army reduction in 1661. The Independent Company Isenach in July 1673 was taken over by Ditlef Lüthken. The company garrisoned different fortifications in Holstein. In 1675 it served as the garrison company in Rendsburg with Colonel Lüthken as the commandant. April 1675 the company became part of newly raised regiment of Lüthken (T1675/13).
Uniform: Sky blue coat faced red. Possibly possibly buttons.

Frikompagni Johan Voigt
Possibly (?) raised 1672 from some men on detached service from Rüses Regiment (T1659/ ). As Princes of Holsten-Gottorp, the Danish Kings were from time to time obligated to provide troops to the Holy Roman Empire. Independent Company Voigt was originally provided as part of the regimental strength to the Niedersächische Rote Kreisregiment (The Lower Saxony Red County Regiment, but this was cancelled, and instead the company was sent to Hildesheim, Germany, where it was in garrison up to 1676. Frikompagni Voigt returned home to Denmark in 1676.
15.2.1676 the company became part in Holstenske National Regiment (T1675/21). At the same time Johan Voigt was appointed regimental colonel.
Uniform: Blue coat faced yellow. Possibly pewter buttons.

Frikompagni Albert Allard
After the army reduction of 1661 Frikompagni Erdwein Thumsdorff was raised from men from his old regiment. Captain Albert Allard took over the company in March 1673. February 1675 the company became part of Degenfeldts Regiment (T1674/2).
Uniform: Red coat faced blue. Pewter buttons.

Poul Rantzows Kompagni
also called Kredskompagniet
Raised 1674 and meant as a contingent for the above mentioned Rote Kreisregiment of the Holy Roman Empire. (See Frikompagni Voigt.). However other arrangements were agreed with the Empire and the company never was sent. Originally it was raised from men from Weyhers Geworbne Regiment (T1657/24), the three independent companies of Holstein, together with the contingent of the Duke of Gottorp. Possibly the uniform should have been a gray coat faced red, the color should have been red. For a short while the company remained as a sort of Frikompagni, but in July 1675 it was incorporated into Lüthkens Geworbne Regiment(T1675/13).

5 Independent Companies from Oldenborg
The identity of these companies is unknown. Together with the Detachment Keller, they formed the garrisons of the fortifications in the counties Oldenborg and Delmenhorst. Spring 1675 all were incorporated into Baudissins Geworbne Regiment. (T1675/14).
Uniform: Almost unknown, except that some or all the companies did not wear red coats. Instead they are known to have had red sashes and neckcloths.

Frikompagni Johan Berendt
This company was detached from the Slesvig-Holstenske National Regiment (T1664) in June 1675 and then formed the guard at the Gottorp Castle/Palace.
January 1676 the company became part of Holstenske National Regiment (T1675/21) and formed the basis for the creation of three new enlisted companies to the regiment, but under command of Lieutenant Colonel Behrendt, as the companies were earmarked for the field army in Scania. Something, among that the uniform colors, seems to indicate that they were to be amalgamated into Kongens Livregiment (T1658/9)
Uniform: 1675 Red coat faced yellow. Pewter buttons.

Frikompagni Detlef Andersen
This independent company was in February 1676 detached from Holstenske National Regiment (T1675/21) and took over from Frikompagni Behrendt the responsibility of guarding the Gottorp Palace. Soon after this guard service was abolished and the unit was sent to the field army in Scania, where it is ruined. At the end of 1676 it is disbanded.
Uniform: 1676 Red coat faced blue. Pewter buttons.

Frikompagni Just Ebel
Formed at the end of 1676 from men from the national regiments on Zealand to make up a garrison for the fortifications at Korsør. Spring 1677 Captain Hans Højer takes over the company and stays with it as commandant of Korsør until the end of the war 1679. Then the company is disbanded and the men transferred to Sjællandske Geworbne Regiment (T1627/19)
Uniform: 1676 Blue coat faced yellow. Pewter buttons.
1679 Gray coat faced green. Pewter buttons.

Frikompagni Steen Andersen Bille
The main part of the company was detached February 1676 from Nordjydske Nationalregiments 2. udskrivning (T1675/17) and strengthened by further enlistments. It formed the garrison of Kastellet, the Citadel of Copenhagen and at the same time served as guard on the magazines in Copenhagen. Over time the company became the place to send young soldiers, considered not mature enough to take part in the campaigns. The company was retained after the war and in 1683 became part of Battalion Schack (T1683/4).
Uniform:1677 (capitulation of February) Blue coat faced red. Pewter buttons.
Summer-Autumn 1677 light gray coat faced yellow. Pewter buttons.
November-December 1677 light gray coat faced red.

Frikompagni Ulrich Dewitz
Raised Spring 1677 primarily from conscripted Norwegians. Served during the war as garrison of the Fredericia fortifications. 1678 Johan Canstler took over command, which at the end of the year is given to Johan W. Auerswaldt. After the war the company is retained and 1683 it is incorporated into Fynske Geworbne Regiment (T1661/1).
Uniform: Light gray coat faced red. 48 pewter buttons.

Frikompagni Carl Gustaf Küchenmeister
Raised Winter 1677 as part of a contemplated regiment under Colonel Kregel. This regiment was never completed. The company having no parent unit, Küchenmeister by the capitulation of April 1677 took over command. End of 1677 it was incorporated into Regiment Prins Christian (T1657/32).
Uniform: According to the capitulation: gray coat faced blue. It is unknown if the company had been uniform before it was transferred.

Frikompagni Lorentz Willemann
Like Frikompagni Küchenmeister, see above.

Frikompagni Jacob Gewecke
Raised Summer 1678 as garrison of the Nakskov Fortification. Colonel Jacob Gewecke was commandant and company commander. 1684 it was incorporated into Regiment Prins Frederik (T1657/24).
1678 light gray coat faced blue.

Foreign Regiments in Danish Service

Hesse-Kassel

Infantryregiment Ufm Keller (1677/4)
Originally contracted 11.6.1677 from Hesse-Kassel as an infantry regiment of 8 companies with 33 officers, 240 NCOs and Gefreiters, and 1,170 men. The regiment was destroyed on Rügen in January 1678, and a new was one raised (or the old one replenished) in Hesse by contract of 20 July 1678 by Colonel Ufm Keller, incorporating those remaining from the old one. This time 1,400 men in 8 companies armed with fusils and pikes and a separate unit of 50 grenadiers under special command.
A company should be 3 officers, 3 sergeants, 1 Führer, 1 Capitain des armes, 1 fourér (functioned also as the bodyguard of the captain), 3 corporals, 2 drummers and 2 fifer, 23 Gefreiters and 113-116 men. Separate 45 grenadiers. Staff personnel 20 (regimental quartermaster - normally an officer, ADC - normally a NCO, judge advocate, preacher, provost with helpers, wagon master with helpers and train drivers, Landgräfliche Commisarius - the representative of the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel, the barber with his helpers (the were no military doctors at that time, the work was taken care of by the members of the barbers guild, musterscribe - regimental clerk. All in all this was a normal infantry regiment of the time. The uniform is given as "the customary blue of Hessen, not as dark as today (1882) by the author C.von Stamford in Die Feldzüge der Regimenter Umf Keller und von Hornumb von Hessen-Cassel. 1882. To be quite frank, it seems a rather unsubstantiated guess by the author. The regiment returned to Hesse-Kassel 1679.

Münster Auxiliary Corps

 

Grandvilliers (T1677/7)
Part of the first contingent in 1677. Disbanded 1678
Uniform: unknown

Netzow (Nitzau or Nitzow)(T1677/8 see Münster 1672/33 )
Part of the first contingent in 1677.
Gaugreben (Gogreve) in 1678. Part of the second contingent in 1678. Disbanded 1679.
Uniform: unknown

Tecklenburg (T1677/9 see Münster 1673/3)
Part of the first contingent in 1677. Disbanded 1678 .
Uniform: unknown

Braun (T1677/9 see Münster 1673/4)
Part of the first contingent in 1677. Disbanded 1679.
Uniform: unknown

Wedel (T1678/6 (V.648 and 696) see Münster 1672/20)
1678 Gustaf Vilhelm Wedell
Part of the second contingent in 1678. On 1.11.1679 amalgamated with Sydjyske Nationale (T1675/18), and then known as Jysk Wedelske Regiment (T1678/12)
1679 gray coats with blue lining. (Guess by Vaupel?)

Esches (Esch) (T1678/7 (V.615 and 696) see Münster 1672/21)
Part of the second contingent in 1678. 1679 Erdmund Esche
Entered Danish service after the war and amalgamated into Fynske (T1679/3)
Uniform: unknown.

Schwarz (Schwartz) (T 1678/8 see Münster 1674/1)
Part of the Second Contingent in 1678.
Uniform: unknown.

Frankenstein (T1678/9 see Münster 1677/4).
Part of the Second Contingent in 1678. Disbanded 1679.
Uniform: unknown.

Note: Münster infantry appear to have worn gray coats faced in various colors with red being the most common.

 

Austrian Auxiliary Corps

Strasoldian or Strassaldo Infantry Regiment (T1659/4)
3 battalions (1,422 men)
Uniform: unknown

 

Color Plates

Henriksen Plate - Danish Infantry 1675-1676

Views of Danish Infantry in the Rosenborg Tapestries and Möinichen Paintings

 

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