Cavalry and Dragoons
Uniforms, Colours and Standards

 

Cavalry

In contrast to the infantry where it is possible to reconstruct infantry uniforms rather well from clothing receipts and other official papers, the archives do not reveal much about cavalry uniforms. We do know that the cavalry regiments at least had different colored regimental facings and shabraques. These are illustrated in many of the paintings by Möinichen (ca. 1683) in Frederiksborg Castle. It is only with the Regulations of 1692-1699 that regimental facing colors for the cavalry are officially established.

The 1670 Regulations for the National Cavalry only mentions that the troopers should show up in gray or blue coats with colored linings. Light gray coats seemed to have predominated, but blue coats could have been worn by some. The headdress was either a gray or black hat - sometimes with a colored edging on the brim. Helmets may also have been worn by some; however no cuirasses, except perhaps by some officers and a single regiment, the 1. Jyske Nationale Rytteregiment. Collets (buff coats) made of elkskin were also worn, and considered quite sufficient, more practical and modern; but they were expensive and might have been only worn by the Hestgarden (The Horseguards). They were worn over the regular coat.

A list from January 1677, following the disastrous battle at Lund (December 1676), when the army had to be totally refurbished, describes the items to be provided for a "sognerytter" (mounted man provided by a parish). He should report with horse, 2 pistol holsters with holster covers, a shabraque, 2 pistols, one carbine with bandolier, cartridge box, hat, coat, cloak, boots, sword, sword belt, horse bits, spurs, stirrups, clasps and flint stones for his firearms. Firearms were no longer provided by the farm holder (who was compelled to deliver a mounted man as a kind of tax), but were now supplied by the crown to achieve uniformity in armament.

 

Organization

In 1670 the entire cavalry force was reorganized and turned into primarily a National force, in contrast to the infantry. The organization was identical for all cavalry regiments, national (conscripted) and geworbene (enlisted). A regiment was 1,000 men in 8 companies.

In preparation for the coming war the number of companies in each regiment was increased to 12, but the strength of the regiment remained 1,000 men. Each regiment was then split into two separate regiments with 500 men in 6 companies. Each new regiment in battle could be organized into 2 or 3 squadrons to be led by the staff officers - the colonel, lieutenant colonel and major. The first company, livkompagniet (the life company), belonging to the regimental commander, had 94 men, while the other companies had 81 men plus officers.

Each company had a 1 ritmester (captain), 1 lieutenant, 1 cornet, 5 NCOs, 3 trumpeters, 2 artisans and 71 troopers, a total of 84 men. In 1678 the regimental strength was reduced to 6 companies with 453 men, except for Hestgarden and Livregimentet.) In 1679, with the arrival of peace, the companies were reduced to only 75 men of which 62 were troopers, except for Hestgarden and Livregimentet which retained their original strength. These strength figures are not that important because for the most part during the war all units were under strength as a result of sickness and casualties.

Weapons

Cavalry were armed with a straight, thrusting sword, wheellock pistols and carbine.

 

Uniforms

For most regiments only the color and appearance of their standards are known. However, it is generally assumed that the cuff and lining colors were the same as the colors of the standards. There may have been different hues on the schabraques when two regiments had the same color standard, which resulted from the splitting of regiments in 1670. Although this cannot be verified, it is perhaps the best that can be determined at this time. The archives are silent on cavalry facing colors. The color of the standards for the old regiments followed the traditional coloring of the different provinces, and there is the possibility that the regimental facing colors followed suit. The coats appear to be single breasted on the pictures by Möinichsen and were usually light gray, almost white in color; but blue was also possible. Buff coats, collets, were also worn by a few. Buttons were either pewter or brass. Hats varied in color from a white-yellow, gray to black with black being the dominate color over time. A few of the hats appear to have a C5 and crown, probably in brass, pinned to one side. Some hats had a border around the brim, while others are without it. Neckcloths could be white (common), red-yellow striped and black. Black neckcloths appear to have been a sign of recognition for trumpeters, kettledrummers and noncommissioned officers. Carbine and sword belts were a yellowish, natural leather. The sword scabbard was black and the sword hilt was iron (a few regiments could have had brass). Cartridge boxes appear to have been in different colors. In the Möinichen paintings they are red (possible red leather), while in the Rosenborg tapestries they are shown in red and white with gold embroidery (possibly Hestgarden). Schabraques and holster covers were in the regimental facing color and could be trimmed in the button color or without trim. Certain regiments may have had C5 embroidered on both the schabraque and holster covers. Breeches were a yellowish leather. Boots were black. Gauntlets were in various shades of brown. Horse furniture was black.

Officers: Coats in the same color as the men of the regiment with similarly colored cuffs and lining, or red (or regimental facing color) with facings also in red or the coat color of the men (white/light gray). The coat was richly embroidered in the button color (gold or silver) or the regimental facing color. The embroidery usually appeared on the coat seams, on the cuffs, pockets and coat front edges. The hat was edged in the button color The hair was worn in many different forms, often a wig, but seldom white. On the neck one often sees a bow tie, usually red, in addition to a neckcloth, which was white. The schabraque and holster covers were in the regimental color with rich embroidered trim in the button color. All leather equipment (belts) were also richly embroidered in the button color. There is no doubt that the uniforms of officers were to a high degree dependent on individual taste and wealth.

Trumpeters and Kettledrummers: The same coat and facing color as the rest of the regiment. Coat seams were decorated in braid of the regimental facing color sometimes mixed with gold or silver. The sleeves were decorated with horizontal stripes, pockets, cuffs and coat front edges were also trimmed in braid of the regimental facing color sometimes mixed gold or silver. Trumpet cords and tassels were probably in the regimental facing color. Trumpet and kettledrum colours were probably decorated with the same colors and appearance as the standards. There is no indication that the horses for trumpeters and kettledrummers were white or dapple-gray. In general their horses appear to have been browns or blacks.

 

Standards

Each company had its own standard. All standards had the Dannebrog, a red field with white cross, in the upper, inner corner. The standard of the livkompagni (Life Company) was always white. The standards of the time had a very practical and important role as markers of direction during movement and tactical evolutions. The white life (liv) standard, furthermore, served to mark the location of the whole regiment. The role of standards as regimental symbols, which were bitterly fought over in battle, cannot be underestimated. The victorious side always proudly presented any captured colors and standards together with kettledrums and cannons. Even publications were produced, reporting what had been taken. In Sweden (and France) all captured standards were drawn and colored in an "official" book, and in this way we know the basics of many of the Danish colors, even if the original perhaps has gone to pieces. These spoils of war belonged to the King alone.

With the increase in the number of National cavalry regiments by raising the number of companies to 12 from earlier 8 and splitting the regiments it was of course necessary to provide new standards. Generally the "old" regiments seem to have received new standards together with one or two old ones, while the new regiments used the old standards.

There were three main models of standards, all made of double-layered damask. Two models had the provincial arms and were in the old provincial colors, differing only in the design of the shield around the arms and the location of the mottoes or inscriptions. The new standards had the inscriptions in a bow around the shield, while on the old standards the inscriptions were in one or two horizontal lines in the lower half of the standard. The arms of (Zealand) (Sjælland) were red with 3 blue lions and 9 red hearts, those of Funen (Fyn) were green with a "lindorm"(a very old mythical monster (dragon) originating from the "heathens" on Rügen in Northern Germany), Jutland (Jylland) were yellow or blue with the 1 blue lions and 9 red hearts of North Jutland, Southern Jutland (Slesvig) had 2 blue lions. On the standards the different mottoes or inscriptions were in Danish or German, and in Latin for the enlisted regiments. In some cases only some of the arms were on the standard, for example those of the 1. Sjællandske had only the three blue lions. The hearts are missing.

The models of 1670 and 1675 differ in their shields and their surroundings, and the artists also made minor variations. A third "plainer" and more royal model was introduced for the enlisted regiments. It was made of heavy damask, which had a flower pattern, in the regimental color and with the King's monogram, a crowned C5. All the standards had fringes, often gold or silver mixed with a silk color, or a mix of the regimental and a company color. They measured approximately 50 cm x 50 cm. Standards could be either embroidered or painted.

The standard's staff could be very elaborate with carvings and painted for instance blue with gold or very simple, almost like a broomstick. On the top of the staff a finial, often a gilded C5. Today most of the surviving standards are those captured by the Swedes and are beautifully preserved in the Army Museum in Stockholm, while the inscriptions (mottoes) of now non-surviving standards are known through the Danish archives.

 

The Regiments


Hestgarden (The Horseguards) (T 1675/5 (V.592))
From 18.1.1661 Frederik Arenstorff, 1678 Samuel Kristof Plessen.
Uniform: red coat with yellow facings and lining. Buttons gold-silver. Shabraque red with gold. 1677-78 cloaks red (1677) with 18 buttons and possibly with yellow lining and could have been embroidered with the King's monogram. Red and yellow were the colors of the Royal House. The guard also had "Carabinermanteln" (overcoats or cassocks), which were also red with yellow lining with buttons covered with silk, possibly with the kings crowned monogram C5. In 1677 breeches made of leather and some in cloth were delivered. 426 sets of the crowned royal monogram, C5, were made to be placed on the overcoats of the guardsmen.The Hestgarden possibly may have worn collets (buff coats) faced red. A number a cavalry in this dress appear prominently in the Möinichen's paintings.
Trumpet banners appear vertically striped from right to left white, red, blue, white. Red trumpet tassels.
Standards unknown (very possibly white with gold and silver embroideries as shown by Möinichsen)


Livregiment Ryttere (enlisted) (T. 1672 (V.556))
1672 U.F.Gyldenløve, 11.12.1672 Ditlev Rantzau, 1.3.1676 Hans Vilhelm Meerheim, 1.7.1677 Adam Hans Bars, 1697 K.D.Reventlow.
Raised 25.10.1672 as an enlisted regiment in Mecklenburg under the name Holstenske Ryttere or Gyldenløves Regiment. 1673 the name was changed to Livregiment Ryttere.
Uniform: Light gray coat faced red (?)
Life Standard: totally white "made of silver Moor, called "Xalet" (names for special cloth) with embroidery and fringe all in gold.
The other 5 standards in white pearl-Moor with gold embroidery and with crimson cloth for Dannebrog in the upper, inner corner. The companies seem to have been distinguished by different colored silk fringes mixed with solid gold fringes on the standards. The fringe combinations mentioned are: crimson with gold, white with gold, green with gold, citrus yellow with gold and bleumourant with gold. All standard staffs made of oak painted white and gold. Finials in gilded brass with CF (possibly C5?) Further it seems that the tassels were gold silk cords. The nails to fasten the standards to the staffs were gilded. A cover for each standard also was issued.


Sjællandske Rostjeneste (T 1675/1 (V.1675/1))
1675 K.K. Holck, 1676 H. Schilden (J.S. Halle), 1678 J. Rantzau
The Rostjeneste formed 1670 was divided into two regiments: Sjællandske Rostjeneste (including the companies of Fyn (the island Funen) and Jyske Rostjeneste. Each regiment was on the normal cavalry footing of 500 men. After the battle at Landskrona 1677 the regiments are amalgamated and strengthened by a newly recruited company of 84 men of which 71 were troopers (some sources says two companies) under Lieutenant Colonel H. Meyer. They were equipped with horse, saddle, horse furniture, carbine, 2 pistols with flints, sword, cloak, collet, coat and boots (Rockstroh II, p.188). This company was destroyed 9 January 1678 on the island of Rügen together with a further 50 troopers from the regiment. In the spring 1678 four companies under J. Rantzau are sent to Wismar, while the rest did patrol duty on the southern border of Jutland. In May 1678 Rostjenesten was sent to Scania strengthened by a newly raised squadron under J.S. Halle. Dissolved 31.10.1679.
Uniform: Light gray faced red. (?) More likely in buff coats (collets) and with helmets.
The regiment carried kettledrums made of copper.

Their standards are known and exist today in Stockholm, as some were captured at the Battle of Lund in 1676, not during the battle but when the Swedes captured the train as the regiment at that time was to weak in manpower to carry all of them in battle. They were made in red damask with red fringes. In the center was a silver Maltese cross and in the upper, inner corner a crowned C5 in gold. Both sides were alike.
Mottoes 1670:
1. NAAR TIID KOMMER, KOMMER OCH RAAD.
2. STRAX PÅ LIUNET FÖLGER OCH TORDENSLAG.
3. HÖDER DU SAA SLAAR JEG. (Taken by Lund)
4. DRISTIG BEYLE FÖR BRUDEN HIEM. (Taken by Lund) Belonged to Lieutenant Colonel Holcks company.
5. KOM I RETTE TIID.
6. BLAND KORTET VEL.
7. GOOD SEEGER RETTET VEL ET OND LAST (?)
8. I MORGEN ER OCH EN DAG.

Up to 1677 it is known the regiment carried standards with these mottoes:
1. BLAND KORTET VEL
2. KOM I RETTE TID
3. I MORGEN ER OG EN DAG



Jyske Rostjeneste (T1675/2)
Mogens Kruse
Uniform: Light gray faced red. (?)
Mottoes:
MIT VERSTAND UND MACHT (lost at Lund)
EIJ ROF MEN LOF (lost at Lund) Belonged to the 5th or 6th company under Ritmester Brockdorf.


Skånske Rostjeneste (T1676/3)
H. Steensen
Raised summer 1676, disbanded March 1677.
Uniform: Light gray faced red. (?)


1. Sjællandske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1670/1 (V.584))
1670 F. Arenstorff, 1.8.1677 Holger Trolle
Uniform: Light gray coat faced red. (?)
Kettledrums of copper.
Standards 1670 of red damask decorated with a yellow field in which are 3 blue lions. A white Danish cross in the upper, inner corner.
Mottoes:
1. Alting har sin Tiid.
2. Hvor intet wofves, intet windes.
3. Faar, der bräger möget mälker lit.
4. Frisk mod, half Rytertæring.
5. Nöd bryder Jern.
6. Atterdag.
7. Fælles fare fastest Baand.
8. Lenge betenckt, hastig fuldendt.
These standards was divided 1675 between the 1. and 2. regiment (T1675/4).
The following mottoes are known for 1. Sjællandske Regiment after 1675:
1. White with the arms of Seeland, the 3 blue lions on a yellow field framed by stylized leaves in gold with silver ornaments. In the upper, inner corner corner a red Dannebrog with silver cross and framed by a thin red border. Motto: RIEN SANS DIEU. Belonged to the Life Company.
2. ALT FOR VOR KONGENS ÆRE
3. LYCKEN BÆR MANDEN OFVER BÆCKEN (belonged to 2. company.) (Stockholm)
4. HAAB TIL HIERTET BRIISTER
5. EFTER REGEN SOLSCHIN
6. LENGE BETENCKT HASTIG FULDENDT


2. Sjællandske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1675/2 (V.585))
1.8.1675 Ditlev Rantzau, 26.7.1677 Burchard Münchhausen, 1678 Georg Trop
Uniform: Light gray faced red. (?)
The standard of the Life Company was lost at Lund.
The other standards must be some of the old ones with the mottoes mentioned under 1. Sjællandske Nationale Rytterregiment 1670 above.


1. Jyske Nationale Rytteregiment (T1670/3 (V.571))
1.8.1670 Ditlev Rantzau, 12.7.1675 H.F.Levetzau, 21.6.1677 Frans Schwanewedel
Uniform: Light gray faced yellow(?)
Standarts yellow with a white shield in which there is a blue lion, beneath the lion 9 red hearts. Dannebrog in the upper, inner corner.
Mottoes 1670:
1. I TIIDE ELLER ALDRIG.
2. SVÆRDET SKILLER TRÆTTE.
3. BEDRE AT STAAE, END SKAMMELIG AT FLYE.
4. SAMDRÆGT FÖDER, TVEEDRAGT ÖDER.
5. MAND AGTER, DÖED SKIFTER.
6. FORLAD DIG PAA GUD.
7. GAMMEL WANE BIDER BEST.
8. SEYREN STAAR I GUDS HAAND.

1675 the 1. Regiment receives 4 new estandards with the following mottoes:
1. SNART NOCH, NAAR KUN VEL NOCH
2. TIDEN SKAL LÆRE DET
3. RÆD MAND GILLER EY FRUER (this motto is also given for the 6th company of the 2. Regiment.)
4. GAMMEL STUD HAR HARDEST HORN (Stockholm) 50 x 50 cm. Fringes 5 cm. Painted.


2. Jyske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1675/4 (V.568))
12.7.1675 P. Juel, 2.3.1676 Jakob Bülow, 11.8.1677 Hartnach Bibow
Uniform: Light gray faced yellow. (?)
1. the life company had a flowered white silk standard (damask) with fringes in white and silver. On the standard a crowned wreath and inside the wreath a gold embroidered lion and beneath it 9 gold embroidered hearts. Motto: TROE TIL DØDEN.
The other companies had yellow standards on which a blue lion interwoven with silverthreads with 9 golden hearts beneath. Surmounted by a golden crown. A round laurel wreath embroidered in silver.
2. Company.: GAMMEL WAHNE BODER BEST.
3. Company: EN KNIV HOLDER DEN ANDEN I SCKEDEN.
4. Company: FRYCHT GUD.
5. Company.: SE?EREN STAAR I GUDS HAAND.


3. Jyske Nationale Rytteregiment (T1670/4 (V.565))
1.8.1670 A.Sandberg, 10.5.1677 Lorenz Styrke
Uniform: Light gray faced blue. (?) Another possibility, although less likely, is a blue coat faced red.
Standard mottoes 1670:
KNIF HOLDER ANDEN I SKEDEN
SEYER ELLER DØDEN
BLOD ER TROSKABS BESEIGLING
VEL BEGYNT ER HALF ENDT
IBLAN TORNE ROOSER
HER GIELDER INGEN SNACK
SEYER HØR HERREN TILL
KNEP ELLER KORN.
The new standards received 16.5.1674 were of blue damask with a blue lion on a yellow field. Mottoes:
TRO VEL VEED HESTEN BORT
TIDEN HAFVE A..(?)
STORE SØER, STORE BØLGER
SICHT METT AGT


4. Jyske Nationale Rytteregiment (T1675/5 (V.573))
5.5.1675 Karl Arenstorff, 1.1.1677 Hans Walter (killed at Landskrona 16.7.1677), 16.7.1677 Hans D.Steensen, 23.10.1677 Adam Kristof Holstein
Uniform: Light gray faced blue. (?) Another possibility, although less likely, is a blue coat faced red.
At Lund 1676 the 2nd Company lost an standard with the motto: SEYER ELLER DØDEN. (Is curiously described as of red damask with red fringes. Shield edge in arcantus leaves.) Dannebrog with the cross in silver. The arms of Jutland?


1. Fynske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1670/2 (V ?))
1.8.1670 Johan Liebrecht, 1671 Hans Valdemar Schultz, 1672 J.Duncan, 1676 Kristof Otto Schack, 4.8.1677 Siegfried Rathlou, 27.11.1677 Otto Rantzau.
Uniform: Light gray faced green. (?)
Standards 1670 green with a yellow "lindorm" on a red field with crown above. Dannebrog in the upper, inner corner.
Mottoes:
1. ALTID LIGE FÆRDIG.
2. KIECK OG U-FORFÆRT.
3. GIERNINGEN PRIISER MESTEREN. (Lost as belonging to 2. Fynske). Of green double damask with green silk fringes. On the standard is embroidered in a red shield a dragon of gold in red field with a crown above. Dannebrog in the corner. Motto: Gjerningen prieser Mesteren. Has belonged to the new raised regiment, the 2. Fynske. The estandard original from the old Funen.
4. LÖFTE GIÖR SKYLDIGHED.
5. UNGDOMS MÖDE, ALDERDOMS FËDE.
6. DÖD HUND BIDER EJ.
7. STILLE VAND, DYB GRUND.
8. KLOCKEN KIENDES AF KLANGEN.
The new estandards 1675 had the mottoes:
ANSLAG MED RAAD BESTAAR
GUD ER EN HERRE OFUER STYRCKE
HVO LEGE VIL, SKAL SETTE TIL
VAAGEN MAND ER OND AT VÆKKE


2. Fynske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1675/3 (V.567))
5.7.1675 Konrad D.Rewentlow, 4.1.1677 Baltasar Arenstorff, 1678 Kristof Lorenz Reitzenstein
Uniform: Light gray faced green. (?)
Standards 1675: green with a yellow "lindorm" on a red field. Dannebrog in the upper, inner corner.
Life company: motto VANDSKELIGHED PRISER MANDEN and two company standards with the mottoes: ARRET BLOD, FANGER MAND and WAAGEN MAND ER OND AT VÆKKE. The rest must be from the old regiment.
4 standards are known, as they were lost at Lund
2. Company: motto: KIECK OCH UFORFERT. Dannebrog in the corner. Middle green damask. A closed crown over the insignia, which shows the "lindorm" turned against the staff and without a crown.
3. Company: motto GIERNINGEN PRIESER MESTEREN. Green damask with the "lindorm" on a red field turning away from the staff. Green fringes. The edges of the field in silver and gold. Golden crown. Motto in gold. The whole standard embroidered.
4. Company: only the staff remains.
Mottoes known for 2. Fynske
LÖFTE GIÖR SKYLDIGHED
DÖD HUND BIDER EY
KLOCKEN KIENDES AF KLANGEN


Slesvig-Holstenske Nationale Rytterregiment (T1670/5)
1.5.1670 Henrik Sehested, 24.12.1676 Konrad Rewentlow, 1.11.1678 Otto Fr. Gamm
Uniforms: 1670 and 1675 light gray with orange. Another possibility, although less likely, is a blue coat faced red.
Standards 1670 all red. The companies from Rendsborg had in the upper, inner corner a little white Danish cross (Dannebrog), a nettle leave (symbol of Holstein) and the mottoes in German. The companies of Schlesig had the Danneborg in the upper, inner corner, the arms of Slesvig - 2 yellow or golden lions in a blue field with the mottoes in Danish.
Mottoes:
Rendsborg companies
1. EIN KECKER MUTH IST GUTER HARNISCH.
2. ZEIT BRINGT ROSEN, NICHT DER STOCK.
Slesvigske companies
3. TIIDEN ER LIGE LANG, MEN ICKE LIGE NYTTIG.
4. MERE I GIERNING END I ORD.
5. HVO TÖR.
6. BED OCH ARBEID.
7. SNACK HAR VI NOCK AF.
8. KIØR SAGT.


Christian Juuls Rytterreiment
Four companies of newly raised dragoons were converted to cavalry in the Summer of 1677. This regiment wore dragoon uniforms until it was broken up at the end of 1677, and the men divided among the Livregiment and the Nationale regiments.
Uniform: gray faced blue?

Örtzens Rytterregiment
Uniform: gray faced red? May be same as Baudissins below.

Baudissins Geworbne Rytteregiment (enlisted) (T1675/7 (V.578))
1675 Baudissin, 1677 Örtzen, 1679 Bernstorff
Uniforms: Løvenskjold gives the uniforms at Lund as gray with white.
Light grey with red (Vaupel). Also possibly light gray faced green.(?)
Standards: 12.12.1677 the regiment deposits to Tøjhuset (the Armory in Copenhagen) 6 standards - 1 white and 5 blue - all without mottoes. New standards were given to the regiment under Örtzen, who writes that the regiment is missing one standard and asks for a design or permission to make one after an enclosed (no longer existing) design.


Geweckes Geworbne Rytterregiment (enlisted) (T1675/9 (V. ))
1675 Gewecke
The regiment was disbanded in 1677 and the troopers transferred to the Sjællandske (regimental number?). 3.11.1677 the regiment deposits at Tøjhuset 1 white and 5 red standards with "Bögelder"(?) crown. Possibly the model with the kings crowned monogram within a wreath.
Uniform: light gray faced black.(?)
Mottoes 1675
SIC SOTENT CIMBRI (?)
OCCURRORE DISCIPLINEM
ET MORI POTIUS
QUAM INTUTA ...(?)
HOC AMOR IN PATRIAM
HOC RES IUBET


Rauchs Geworbne Rytterregiment (enlisted) (T1675/8)
1675 Gottfried Rauch (killed at Christianstad 21.5.1677), 1.6.-1.9.1677 Joachim Rüdiger Goltz. The regiment was disbanded in March 1677 and the troopers transferred to Baudissins Geworbne Rytterregiment (1675/7).
Uniform: Light gray faced brown or violet. (?)
Standards: red (Vaupel gives brown) with the kings crowned monogram.
The red standard of 2. company was lost at Lund.
Mottoes:
PRO REGE
PRO FOIX
PRO SOCIIS
PUGNABIMUS
ET DEO JUVANTE
DEROLLEMIS(?) ADVERSA


Gullandske Ryttere (T1676/)
1676 Martin Bartelsen (inf?)
Raised by Admiral Niels Juel on the island Gotland with 3 companies in June 1676. Disbanded 1679.
In 1676 Bartelsen was given 2,000 alen of yellow cloth and 1,600 alen of red baize (for lining) for his troops, which included both cavalry and infantry.


Meyers Geworbne Eskadron (enlisted) (T1677/)
Raised as a squadron with 2 companies (each with 84 men of which 71 were troopers.) They were equipped with horse, saddle, horse furniture, a carbine, 2 pistols, sword, cloak, collet, coat and boots. 1677 the squadron took part on Rügen. In 1678 it had a strength of 3 squadrons.
Uniform: Light gray coat faced ?.

 

Dragoons

Organization

Dragoon organization was essentially the same as that of the cavalry. In 1677 the dragoon regiments converted their lance corporals (gefreiters) into grenadiers (ca. 10 per regiment).

Weapons

Dragoons were armed with a sword suitable for both thrusting and cutting, a matchlock or flintlock musket, a pistol and an axe or pickax.

Uniforms

Dragoon uniforms were essentially the same as the infantry with the exception of dragoon boots, which were lighter and softer than the normal cavalry boot. This allowed for dismounted action.

 

The Regiments

Detleff Rantzaus Dragonregiment (T1675/11)
1676 Claus H. Rambstett (Ramsted), 1676 Georg Brochenhuus (Brockenhaus). Rambstett began to recruit another regiment, possibly with some men from this regiment as the basis. Brochenhuus died in July 1677. No new colonel was named as the regiment was designated to be consolidated with George Tropps Regiment, but it was cut off in Christianstad at the time. Eventually combined with Tropps Regiment late in 1678.
Uniform: gray faced red?

Detleff Örtzens Dragonregiment (T1675/10)
1677 Thilo H. Nymphii (Nympffen). In 1677 the regiment was designated to be consolidated to be consolidated with Georg Brochenhuus and Claus Rambstetts Regiments in a combined regiment under Georg Tropp, but the consolidation did not take place until late 1678.
Uniform: gray faced yellow, brass buttons? (Gray with white - Løvenskjold?)
Colours: yellow (Vaupel)

Georg Tropps Dragonregiment (T1675/12)
Originally created with 6 companies beginning in January 1676. Generalmajor Hans Walter was to be the colonel and recruit a company. In March Colonel Georg Tropp took command of the assembled regiment. The regiment suffered heavily at the Battle of Halmstad in August 1676. The remaining two companies created a squadron under Balthazar J. Knoblauch. Was designated to be consolidated with Christian Juuls Regiment, but was cut off in Christianstad. The consolidation never took place, and the unit remained independent. After Christian Juuls Regiment was disbanded, it was designated for amalgamation with the second Georg Tropps Regiment.
Uniform: gray faced blue?

Colours lost at Halmstad 1676.
One blue with blue fringes. On it C5 surrounded by 2 palmleaves. The devise in gold: AUT NUNC AUT NUNQUAM.
One like the above but with the devise: MIT GOTT WOLLEN WIR TATEN THUN. Further a gilded finial.
One as above with the devise: DEO DUCE OMNIA FELICITER.
One white, possibly from the Liv Squadron. with C5 surrounded by palm leaves. Devise in gold:
WAN DIESER WELT GEBEU WIRD GANTZ ZU DRÜMMER G(EHEN) BLEIBET DOCH DER TUGEND PREIS AUFF FESSTEN FUSS(EN) STEHEN on one side and on the other DIE TUGEND NUR ALLEIN KAN DIESE WELT AUS LACH(EN) UND DAS WAS STERBLICH IST AN UNS UNSTREBLICH MACHEN

In addition there are in Sweden four blue colours with light colored fringes. On them above a dark band with the devise PIETATE ET JUSTITIA, the motto of Christian 5. Beneath a round badge with C5, above a large closed crown. Around the badge 2 palm leaves tied with a large ribbon.

 

Jacob Duncans Dragonkompagni
In April 1676 incorporated in Claus Rambstetts Regiment (Detleff Rantzaus Regiment, see above).
Uniform: Gray faced green?

Claus H. Rambstetts Dragonregiment (T1676/1)
After Rambstett's death in the Summer of 1677 the regiment did not receive a new colonel. The regiment was designated for amalgamation with Brochenhuus and Nymphiis Regiments, but the regiment was cut off in Christianstad. The amalgamation occurred in second half of 1678.
Uniform: gray faced red?

4th Company Colour lost at Landskrona in 1677:
No Dannebrog. Dark field. A laurel wreath with light berries. The wreath was tied at the bottom with a ribbon. The colour is split. 95cm on the staff. Inside the wreath C5 under a closed crown. Beneath the devise: NIHIL PULCHERIS (probably should be: NIHIL PULCHERIUS)
Another description: Single colored red cloth with a closed crown above a C5,surrounded by 2 laurel branches tied with a ribbon at the bottom. Fringe in the field color. Devise: NIHIL PULCHRIUS.

Steen Brahes Skånske Dragonrgiment
This regiment was never completed. Disappears from the rolls in the second half of 1677.
Uniform: gray faced red

Christian Juuls Dragonregiment
Raised early in 1677. Converted to a cavalry regiment in the Summer of 1677 (see under cavalry above). Only 4 newly recruited companies were converted to cavalry. The two old companies remained dragoons and formed a squadron under Johan W. Auerswald.
Uniform: gray faced blue?

Philip Fleichers Dragonregiment
Raised in the second half of 1677. In December 1678 reduced to a squadron of four companies under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Dehn.
Uniform: Gray faced ? Possibly blue faced white.

Georg Tropps Dragonregiment
Originally planned as a consolidation of Brochenhuus, Nymphiis and Rambstetts Regiments in 8 companies. Because of the siege of Christianstad the consolidation was delayed. Tropp set about recruiting a new regiment or at least a part of one. In August and September 1678 the three original regiments and Auerswaldts Squadron were consolidated in the regiment under Tropp. In December 1678 Tropp departed and the regiment was split in two independent squadrons each of four companies under Hausmann and Lieven. Hausmanns Squadron appears to have had men from Nymphiis Regiment as its basis.
Uniform: gray faced blue?

Caspar Hausmanns Eskadron
Uniform: gray faced yellow, brass buttons.

Hans Georg Lievens Eskadron
Uniform: gray faced red?

Note: In 1679 sent to the contribution manager in Kiel, Peter Wichman, to deliver to Lieutenant Colonel Hausmann's 4 companies and Lieutenant Colonel Lieven's 4 companies four standards of red taffeta with fringe and a laurel wreath with C5 within along with the proper staffs, and 4 standards of yellow taffeta with a laurel wreath, crowned C5 and staffs. It is unknown which unit received the red standards and which received the yellow.

 

Foreign Cavalry and Dragoons in Danish Service

Hesse-Kassel

Ufm Keller (T1677/)
Also known as Hornumb (Hornung) after the unit commander.
Raised in 1677 in Hesse-Kassel by Colonel Ufm Keller with 2 squadrons (4 companies).
Each company with 1 ritmester, 1 lieutenant, 1 cornet, 1 wachtmeister, 1 quartiermeister, 3 corporals, 1 trumpeter and 66 troopers. In addition there were officers and NCOs reformé, that is with lower pay and only a commission for the duration of the war. That puts the total in each company to about 80 or more.

 

Münster Auxiliary Corps

Bassem (Grandvilliers) Rytterregiment (T1677(5) Münster 1672/10)
Part of the 1677 Münster contingent. 300 men.
Uniform: gray faced?

Wedels Rytteregiment (T1678(1) Münster 1672/6) (T1678/11)
Part of the 1678 Münster contingent. 400 men? At the beginning of 1679 taken into Danish service.
Uniform: gray faced green?

Bassem Rytterregiment (T1678(2) Münster 1678/1) (T1679/2)
Part of the 1678 Münster contingent. 400 men? At the beginning of 1679 taken into Danish service.
Uniform: gray faced blue

Wendts Rytterregiment (T1678(4) Münster 1678/3)
Part of the 1678 Münster contingent. 400 men?
Uniform: gray faced?

Raves (Rabes) Rytterregiment (T1678(3) Münster 1678/2) (T1679/1)
Part of the 1678 Münster contingent. 400 men? Entered Danish service 1679.
Uniform: gray faced?

Schumacher (Schönemaker) Dragonregiment (T1677(6) Münster 1672/18)
Part of the first Münster contingent in 1677. 200 men in 2 companies.
Uniform: unknown

Hötensleben Dragonregiment (T1678(5) Münster 1672/17)
Part of the 1678 Münster contingent, 650 men.
Uniform: unknown.

Note: Münster cavalry wore gray or brown coats faced in various colors with red being the most common.

 

Austrian Auxiliary Corps

Krain (Lesly or Leslie)(?) Kuirassier (probably elements of KR Metternich T1674/1)
2 squadrons
Uniform: unknown

Schultz Dragoon Regiment (T1631/16)
Arrives in Scania (Skåne) in June 1677 with 2 squadrons. In 1677 the regiment takes part in the Rügen Campaign with 3 squadrons, each of about 100 men. Returned in March 1678.
Uniform: unknown

Croats

In 1677 a Colonel Dubsky raised a company (83 men - later increased to 120 men or more) of Croats, so-called krabater. Following a mutiny in 1678, a Lieutenant Colonel Disnoldt took over the unit. The unit was sent home in May 1679 because it was uncontrollable. The unit was apparently placed under the Hestgarden or Livregiment. The unit might have been larger. In the archives the list for the "Military State" in 1678 lists besides Colonel Dubsky a lieutenant colonel, a major, a ritmester, a captain-lieutenant, 4 cornets and a priest.

The unit's standards, which were issued on 20 May 1678, were of red taffeta with cords and silk fringe. It had a white cross on it. The cross was small and free standing similar to the modern cross on the Swiss national flag.

The unit might have worn the same uniform as the Austrian Collalto-Croaten zu Pferde (T1673) of which Dubsky was Oberstwachmeister. However, on 6 May 1678 cloth was issued to make coats for 80 croats.

In May and June 1678 the unit was issued 80 lances with iron points and pennons, 24 carbines with matchlocks and 16 carbines with flintlocks.

 

Views of Danish Cavalry in the Möinichen Paintings

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